North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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September 2020


  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Sundas Irshad , Hafiz Muhammad Ihsan Zafeer , Samra Maqbool , Samina Zamir , Uzma Sarwar , Sufyan Maqbool
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 300-310, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4065026
Abstract: : The present study was aimed to discover the relationship between Locus of control on job satisfaction among factory employees regarding the different level of age and income. The sample size consisted of 300 employees working in one of the factories, which were situated in Multan, Punjab, Pakistan. The age ranges were from 17-50 years, whereas the income ranges were 5000-40000. Moreover, the hypothesis was also established to check the affiliation between Locus of control and job satisfaction. The quantitative survey method was used based on questionnaires, which had consisted of 48 items that highpoint the causes to adjust the Locus of control and job satisfaction level of the workers. The descriptive and One-Way ANOVA analysis were used as statistical techniques through SPSS for analysis. The results specified that employees with high Locus of control show high job satisfaction. Findings also suggested that different age groups indicate a different level of Locus of control and job satisfaction.

Cite this article as: Sundas Irshad , Hafiz Muhammad Ihsan Zafeer , Samra Maqbool , Samina Zamir , Uzma Sarwar , Sufyan Maqbool;  Locus of control and Job satisfaction among Factory Employees in Multan, Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 300-310, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4065026

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Usman Mohammed Lawal , Li Chaoyang , Zhang Yi
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 286-299, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4062763
Abstract: Traffic congestion problems are increasing in Nigeria, significantly due to poor transportation planning, rapid urbanization, inadequate road development, and rapid population growth. Existing infrastructure is inefficient to cater for this, and dictates a need of precise transportation planning to overcome congestion and delays problems. This paper mainly explains the research undertaken to improve the traffic system of Kaduna, Nigeria, by formulating a comprehensive methodology that not only covers traffic and transportation impact analyses but also incorporates the environmental impacts for Nigeria. A successful project in Kaduna is taken and followed as a model project to formulate a Traffic impact analysis for Nigeria. The study included the procedures of conventional four-step travel demand modelling technique that are successfully proposed to Kaduna Nigeria. The research focuses on improving Nigeria's transportation system highlighting practical solutions for traffic congestion and environmental issues simultaneously. Furthermore, the proposed guidelines will facilitate transportation planners in Nigeria to develop congestion mitigatory measures and environment-friendly infrastructure development plans.

Cite this article as: Usman Mohammed Lawal , Li Chaoyang , Zhang Yi;  Site Transportation Impact Analysis in Kaduna, Nigeria;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 286-299, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4062763

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Subarna Akter , Md. Jahid Hasan , Mohsin Khan , Dr. Md.Rashedul Islam Rana
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 258-264, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3998859
Abstract: Kids don't generally include profoundly in worldwide conversations around antimicrobial opposition (AMR). However, drug-safe diseases hit them especially hard. This is particularly the situation for children and youthful babies. Youngsters make up a fourth of the total populace and are recommended anti-bioticss more than some other medication (1). All around the world, irresistible sicknesses, for example, pneumonia and sepsis are the main reason for death and handicap in youngsters under 5-years of age; answerable for in excess of 3,000,000 youth passings in 2018 . Infant passings make up almost 50% of all passings in kids under-5-years of age.

Cite this article as: Subarna Akter , Md. Jahid Hasan , Mohsin Khan , Dr. Md.Rashedul Islam Rana;  Child health and antibiotics: The Trends;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 258-264, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3998859

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Najamuddin Budh , Mansoor Ahmed Channa , Shabana Sartaj , Abdul Razzaque Lanjwani
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 265-284, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4060587
Abstract: Class room based assessment is a basic tool to assess students learning process. CBA is important method of assessment to get quick response from students. It helps to improve students reading, communicative and writing skills. CBA is effective technique to assess student’s performance in class room. Classroom based assessment is an outgoing process to judge students’ progress. In class room based assessment teachers and students both involve for teaching and learning process. Teachers make students attention in class room to make effective teaching and learning process. This study investigates effectiveness of class room based assessment for students writing skills. Class room based assessment is teacher’s input and student’s output process. CBA helps teachers to see the weaknesses of students within class room for their writing skills. Classroom based assessment helps student to learn new techniques analyze their deficiencies and writing skills. In this research qualitative method is used to collect data .Mostly twenty five students are selected. Participants are randomly selected for survey. Semi-structured interviews are conducted from teachers in Department of English SBBU-SBA and students from Department of English and Information Technology. Open ended question are designed for interview. Data is collected through recording and transcription. The findings of this research demonstrated that mostly all students and teachers were satisfied with class room based assessment for their teaching and learning process.

Cite this article as: Najamuddin Budh , Mansoor Ahmed Channa , Shabana Sartaj , Abdul Razzaque Lanjwani;  An Investigating Effectiveness of Class Room Based for Improving Academic Writing of Undergraduate Students at Shaheed Benazir Bhutto University Shaheed Benazirabad;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 265-284, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4060587

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Md Zahir Ahmed, Liu Siyu
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 241-257, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4058348
Abstract: On account of climate change, global warming, and rapid and growing urbanization, human civilizations are mostly experiencing disasters. Of late, one of the critical South Asian countries- Sri Lanka has achieved almost all aspects development, but unfortunately, the achievements of the country are fading due to the disasters. The catastrophic Tsunami of 2004 obligates the concerning authorities of Sri Lanka to rethink about the disaster management and disaster resilience. As an effective measure and operational instrument soon after Tsunami, in 2005 Sri Lankan government has adopted Disaster Management Act and, later on in 2010 formulated the National Policy of Disaster Management to integrate all Government, nongovernment, private, civil society and international communities. This present has focused on the congeniality of multi-dimensional national disaster management policy is implementing disaster risk reduction operations in Sri Lanka by multiple cases of actual disasters have stroked earlier

Cite this article as: Md Zahir Ahmed, Liu Siyu;  Multi-Dimensional Approaches of National Policy on Disaster Management in Action in Sri Lanka;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 241-257, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4058348

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Jesmin Akter , Akash Mahamud , Huang Hai
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 199-240, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4058313
Abstract: This study aimed to examine at Smartphone addiction characteristics, and also the predictive factors of the Smartphone addiction at school students in Bangladesh. This study explores the use and role of smart phones among adolescence in Bangladeshi school students. Four main categories are used to examine the students’ mobile phone use: reasons to use mobile phones, model of mobile phone use, duration to use Smartphone, and psychometric behaviourrelated issues. It is evident from this study that mobile phone effects on adolescence. The numbers of data for this study have been collected both from primary and secondary sources of information. A total of 1000 participants were preferred to complete a set of questionnaires, including the Smartphone Addiction Inventory Scale SPAI the in the Bengali and English language both. SPSS 22 was used to descriptive and factor analyses, t-tests and correlation analyses were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of the SPAI.

Cite this article as: Jesmin Akter , Akash Mahamud , Huang Hai;  The Study on Impact Factors of Smartphone Addiction among Adolescence in Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 199-240, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4058313

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Dulal Ahmed, Mandi Louise Barker-Gibb , Mark Awe Tachega , Xilong Yao
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 175-198, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4054053
Abstract: Optimum economic sustainability and national grid-parity of renewable energies require significant investment attractiveness (IA) for the feasibility of proposed power generation projects. Using Investment benefit analysis method; this paper aims to identify a method to determine the IA of renewable energy project at a solar power plant (SPP) in Bangladesh. Data was analyzed using two modeling-software: RETScreen-Expert analyses and Microsoft excel along with Discounted-Cash-flow (DCF) model; which displayed differences in annual-costs. The results illustrate that each of six used parameters has the potential to influence all economic tools, except electricity sales via LCOE calculation. The sensitivity range (±25%) NPV attests Electricity-Exported to the Grid to be the most sensitive measure, followed by Initial-Capital-Investment (ICI). Any changes made to optimize the photovoltaic (PV) tilt-angle, influenced maximum rate of the capacity factor for the SPP. Furthermore, LCOE is the most salient factor influencing increased NPV, followed by ICI. In conclusion, the study emphasizes the assessment of underlying uncertainty in a new project’s costs and power generation. Moreover, it clarifies that the economic tools and methodologies herein can establish benchmark models useful for the implementation of other projects, especially those focusing on doubt surrounding IA.

Cite this article as: Dulal Ahmed, Mandi Louise Barker-Gibb , Mark Awe Tachega , Xilong Yao;  Investment Attractiveness of Renewable Energies;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 175-198, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4054053

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Samra Maqbool , Wei Zhao , Summaira Rehman , Hafiz Muhammad Ihsan Zafeer , Sufyan Maqbool
Vol 3, Issue 9 ;September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 162-174, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4054038
Abstract: : Student disruptive behaviors in the classroom often make teaching and learning less productive. It is even more an issue when foreign teachers work with very young children in Kindergarten. This study explored how foreign teachers understand kindergarten students' disruptive behaviors in Xi'an, China. Five foreign teachers (Male and Female) from three kindergartens were interviewed. The teachers varied in length of teaching from 1-4 years. The data was analyzed, and after that coded. This study used three themes; the first one was the role of teachers should be loyal to the students in the classrooms without any discrimination. The second theme was students' disruptive behavior, behind this lack of attention from the teachers and parents with some social issues. The third and last theme was to overcome disruptive behavior; there were discussed some roles and strategies to overcome and eliminate disruptive behavior in classrooms.

Cite this article as: Samra Maqbool , Wei Zhao , Summaira Rehman , Hafiz Muhammad Ihsan Zafeer , Sufyan Maqbool;  A Qualitative Study on Kindergarten Students Disruptive Behaviors Based on foreign Teachers' perception (Xian China);  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 162-174, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4054038

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Dr. Amrih Patriotomo
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 79-99,Seot 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4027949
Abstract: Indonesia is the most populous country in Southeast Asia, ranking top five in the world, and one of the fastest growing economies in Southeast Asia.

Cite this article as: Dr. Amrih Patriotomo;  Indonesia's health product market development prospects and the business opportunities in Indonesia;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 79-99,Seot 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4027949

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Huma Pervez , Anila Usman
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 127-155, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4047195
Abstract: In Pakistan Airline Travel Industry (ATI) is mainly working on B2B model where they procure advance bulk tickets from airlines and sale them to various agents spread all over Pakistan as well in Middle East & Arab countries under cash as well credit business models. In this research we thoroughly studied B2B business of one of the largest Airline Travel Company(ATC) of the country and proposed & implemented an Innovative B2B ERP Model. Implemented B2B Model Innovation includes multiple credit lines for ticket purchase / sale by agents, online & offline ticket sale & return channels facilities to agents, flexible income / discount facilities, multiple recoveries online & offline channels to agents. Paperless environment and used digitization for ticket issuance & return by agents.It includes real integration capabilities through API’s ,Offline Bulk Import / Export and Scheduled Bulk data movement through DB tables using linked server/ web services with GDS / GL / any 3rd party system of the world.

Cite this article as: Huma Pervez , Anila Usman;  An Innovative B2B ERP Model for Airline Travel Industry;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 127-155, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4047195

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Ehtisham Mehmood , Chang Suoliang , Muhammad Ali , Soban Qamar
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 113-126, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4047187
Abstract: Now, with the rapid development of large-scale mine construction in China,the requirements of three-dimensional seismic exploration and interpretation of coalfields are becoming higher. Numerous new methods are emerging, mainly ,Attribute technology plays an increasingly important role.Because of the phenomenon that the interpretation accuracy of 3D seismic exploration in coalfield is not high at present,but the seismic exploration accuracy is required to be high due to the high degree of coal mining intensification, we can make full use of attribute interpretation technology and combine the traditional time profile interpretation to identify small structures and we can find some minor faults, collapse columns, and other structural phenomena. This research has been applied in the Sijiazhuang mining area, some small structures have been found, and proper application results have been achieved. It is found that the combination of seismic attribute technology and GeoFrame interpretation system can effectively improve the interpretation accuracy and has high research value.

Cite this article as: Ehtisham Mehmood , Chang Suoliang , Muhammad Ali , Soban Qamar;  Specific structural Interpretation of 3D seismic data in Sijiazhuang Mining area based on Amplitude and Curvature Attribute fusion;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 113-126, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4047187

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Muhammad Yousaf Iqbal , Wang Tie , Guoxing Li , Dongdong Chen , Ji Zhiyong
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; September 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 100-112, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4044739
Abstract: This paper presents a predictive energy management strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) based on velocity prediction and reinforcement learning (RL). The design procedure starts with modeling the parallel HEV as a systematic control-oriented model and defining a cost function. Fuzzy encoding and nearest neighbor approaches are proposed to achieve velocity prediction, and a finite-state Markov chain is exploited to learn transition probabilities of power demand. The significant motivators for shifting to EVs are reducing polluting engine emissions and reducing dependence on costly oil fuels. By the end of 2019, the global stock of EVs crossed the ten million mark. The growing acceptance of EVs is the outcome of several factors: technological advancements, rising storage capacity of traction batteries coupled with their falling cost, increased public charging facilities and Govt. incentives. The two EV technologies currently remain at the top are the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV). This paper gives an overview of various EV technologies, their features, limitations and challenges in their bulk deployment as a replacement to conventional vehicles.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Yousaf Iqbal , Wang Tie , Guoxing Li , Dongdong Chen , Ji Zhiyong;  Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) Technologies and Reinforcement Look ahead Energy Management;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 100-112, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4044739

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Md. Zamil Sultan , Nasrin Sultana , and Md. Mehedi Islam
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; Sept 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 46-53, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4023376
Abstract: We report on the evaluation of optical characteristics of three media (3M) optical thin films due to enhancement of refractive indices of growth material and incident angle of light to the air-film interface by theoretical analysis and then simulation using Matlab. It has been found that optical performance characteristics, transmittance and reflectance as a function of wavelength of 3M film structure are noticeably influenced with increasing incident angle of light at the air-film interface, and refractive indices of film material and substrate. In particular, frequency or periodicity of reflected spectra is found to have distinct values with increasing incident angle from 5 to 40 degree while the device is in operation. Opposite tendency is observed in transmitted spectra. The dissimilar refractive indices of film affect moderately on the reflectance and transmittance of optical thin film. On the other hand, the reflectance decreases significantly, and oppositely transmittance improves drastically with increasing refractive index of substrate. The proposed research work in this study would be very helpful to develop nano-coating technology to determine best film-substrate materials having desired refractive indices, at a specified incident angle of light for particular application in the third-generation optical devices.

Cite this article as: Md. Zamil Sultan , Nasrin Sultana , and Md. Mehedi Islam;  Optical Performance Characteristics Evaluation of 3M Optical Thin Film Structure with Enhancing Incident Angle of Light and Refractive Indices of Growth Materials;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 46-53, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4023376

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Muhammad Tahir , Rizwan Sarwar Awan , Waqas Muzaffar , Khawaja Hasnain Iltaf
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; Sept 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 54-78, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4023378
Abstract: In this research, we evaluated the shale gas potential of Sembar Formation (Lower Cretaceous) from four different wells.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Tahir , Rizwan Sarwar Awan , Waqas Muzaffar , Khawaja Hasnain Iltaf;  Organic Geochemical Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Sembar Formation to Identify Shale-Gas Potential from the Southern Indus Basin Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 54-78, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4023378

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Munezero Patrick, Twagirayezu Innocent, Uwishimye Ernest, Nshimiyimana Eric
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; Sept 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 26-45, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4020032
Abstract: : Pain management is understood to be a fundamental human right, and has to be accomplished in steps such as pain assessment, identification of the cause, treatment, and monitoring. However, worldwide many patients are still suffering from unrelieved pain. This study is aimed to explore the process of pain management among health care provider working in surgical units at Kibagabaga Hospital. Descriptive cross-sectional design was used in this study where 40 health care providers working in surgical unit at Kibagabaga district hospital were selected purposively as the study participants. Self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Descriptive statistics was used in analysis by the use of SPSS version 16.0. Data analysis disclosed that 45% of participants fulfill all the steps for the process of pain management with a significant association to experience. Diclofenac was the analgesia most used (97.5%), and lack of clinical guidelines cited by 72.5% of participants, was the frequent challenge identified contributing to poor pain management. The findings of this study indicate that there gaps in respecting the process of pain management which may lead to inadequate pain management and continuous professional development was indicated to improve the process of pain management in surgical units at Kibagabaga hospital.

Cite this article as: Munezero Patrick, Twagirayezu Innocent, Uwishimye Ernest, Nshimiyimana Eric;  Exploration of Pain Management Process among Health Care Providers Working in Surgical Units at Kibagabaga Hospital;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 26-45, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4020032

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Noorzaman Bawari
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; Sept 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 15-25, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4020023
Abstract: : This paper is based on various techniques that are used to answer a pair of non-linear equations. These techniques assumed that the answer to these equations exists. The solution of non-linear equations includes the Gauss-Seidel Method. This method is using from decades to know how convergence can be obtained. It is a more straightforward method as compared to other methods. The present study compared many non-linear solution techniques.

Cite this article as: Noorzaman Bawari;  Iterative Methods and Non-Linear System Equations;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 15-25, Sept 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4020023

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 9
Gulfam Hussain, Xiaomen Fang, Nadeem Ahmad Usmani, Syed Ahsan Hussain Gardezi , Majid Hussain , Hussain Asghar , Muhammad Paryal , Shahbaz Bin Khalid
Vol 3, Issue 9 ; Sep 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(9) 1-14, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4015633
Abstract: The study area lies in the southern part of the Hazara Kashmir syntaxis, which is an antiformal structure, located in the Northwestern part of the Himalaya. It is a major tectonic feature controlling the tectonic setting at the western termination of Himalaya. The Tertiary molasse sequence lies in the core of the syntaxis, and the erosional processes of Himalaya feds the detritus in the adjoining Foreland Basin. This molasses sequence is further divided into Chinji, Nagri, Dhok Pathan and, Soan formations, and Mirpur conglomerate. The molasse sequence is folded and imbricated being a part of an active fold and thrust belt in the sub-Himalaya of Pakistan. The folds are northeast-southwest trending, northwest-southeast vergent, close fold geometry and northeast or southwest plunge. The Chinji Formation lies in the core and Nagri Formation on the south-eastern limb, whereas, Malikpur-Diljaba fault truncates the northwestern limb of Tamliahn anticline. The Malikpur-Diljaba, Tanyam and Makhlot faults are reverse faults, whereas, Jhelum fault is a left-lateral strike-slip fault, are major structures in the study area. The Jhelum fault is the youngest and an active tectonic feature in the syntaxial zone. The tectonic history reveals a north-south compressional related deformation.

Cite this article as: Gulfam Hussain, Xiaomen Fang, Nadeem Ahmad Usmani, Syed Ahsan Hussain Gardezi , Majid Hussain , Hussain Asghar , Muhammad Paryal , Shahbaz Bin Khalid;  Structural and stratigraphic studies of Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, northwestern Himalaya, Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 3(9) 1-14, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4015633

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