North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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October 2019


  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Jamil Ahmed Channa, Imran Maqbool Thebo
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 221-227; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3526233
Abstract: : In the mid twentieth century, the board bookkeeping was made with Taylor's hypothesis of logical administration. The executives bookkeeping is a ceaseless improvement process that offers some incentive included worth, structure, measure and oversee money related and non-monetary data frameworks for endeavors. This procedure coordinates the administration activities, inspires conduct, bolsters and makes social qualities, which are expected to accomplish hierarchical system, strategies and business destinations. The examination and utilization of the board bookkeeping in China began lately. Then It began late 70s and mid 80s.Throughout the time around thirty years the board bookkeeping had gained incredible ground under both hypothesis and perform. Numerous realities have demonstrated that China's administration bookkeeping has step by step moved from amount and standard management to the executives of expense and esteem, and from undertaking and division the board to far reaching and vital administration. As of late, with the usage of monetary strategies, for example, division spending plan, contribute ment audit and execution evaluation, "far reaching spending plan", "zero-base spending plan", "spending control", "duty appraisal" and other present day the executives bookkeeping hypotheses and techniques had been used in different undertakings in China. However, the moment so as to administration bookkeeping is shaped and created in China isn't extended all things considered. There are numerous deformities and deficits in China's administration bookkeeping. The hypothetical formation, extent of the research and down to earth use of the board bookkeeping are to be demonstrated & improved, and there’s as yet impressive gap for advancement. This issue is progressively genuine under little and medium-sized ventures [1]. This paper considers present improvement position of the board bookkeeping in little and medium-sized endeavors and aspects which influence the administration bookkeeping in the little and medium-sized undertakings, at that point proposes answers for meet the advancement needs of the executives bookkeeping in little and medium-sized ventures.

Cite this article as: Jamil Ahmed Channa, Imran Maqbool Thebo;  Examine upon the progress and Development of Accounting Management Under Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises in The Peoples’ Republic of China;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 221-227; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3526233

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Hodo Farah Ahmed
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 211-220; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3526222
Abstract: The Islamic economic system is the collection of rules, values and standards of conduct that organize economic life and establish relations of production in an Islamic society. These rules and standards are based on the Islamic order as recognized in the Koran and Sunna and the corpus of jurisprudence opus which was developed over the last 1400 years by thousands of jurist, responding to the changing circumstances and evolving life of Muslims all over the globe. Contrasts the Islamic economic system, which rejects interest but considers moral factors and the will of Allah when measuring welfare. Explains how these ideas can be expressed in the accounting price of capital (for objective factors) and by Islamic welfare criteria; and how they differ from the Pareto Criterion and capitalist concepts of utility.

Cite this article as: Hodo Farah Ahmed;  Allocation of Resources in An Islamic Economic System;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 211-220; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3526222

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Muttahir Hussain, Dr. Ammar Hussain, Dr. Yang Rui Juan, Al-Absi Waledh Ahmed Abdulraheem
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 176-185; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3520187
Abstract: Entrepreneurship is considered as one of the main driver of market and development. Entrepreneurs play an important role in economic development through innovation, creativity and employment. They discover new ideas and provides business opportunities to deliver goods and services. This research aims to study the factors that contribute to the success of entrepreneurs and to analyze the relationship between entrepreneurial factors and the success of entrepreneurs in Gilgit. Concerning the methodology, three entrepreneurial factors personality traits, access to finance and government support were taken in the study using quantitative approach. Using convenient sampling technique, 151 entrepreneurs were selected as respondents. Data were collected from an adapted questionnaire using 5-point Likert scale. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test the relationship between entrepreneurial factors and entrepreneurial success. The study analyzed the significant relationship between entrepreneurial factors and entrepreneurial success. This research will be practicable for scholars and the researchers who are studying entrepreneurial factors. Future research may be conduct this study on a large scale in different geographic regions.

Cite this article as: Muttahir Hussain, Dr. Ammar Hussain, Dr. Yang Rui Juan, Al-Absi Waledh Ahmed Abdulraheem;  Entrepreneurial factors that contribute to the success of Entrepreneurs;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 176-185; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3520187

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Burhan Uddin Banna, Rony Mia, Khaleda Sharmin Tanni, Nafisa Sultana, Al Mojnun Shamim, Rahat Khan Turzo, Foysal Khan Limon, Muhammad Tanjil
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 123-144; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3519880
Abstract: Nature provide us with many resources containing beautiful colors. Natural dyes are now one of the most important research areas for researchers. In this work, the dye was extracted from mango leaves & it was applied on the dyeing for Silk, Cotton & Polyester. The Extraction medium was set up by continue the change of pH value range from 3 to 12. The maximum relative color strength of the extracted dye liquor was found to be at pH 10. The optimum dye extraction conditions i.e., the temperature, time, and material-to-liquor ratio were found to be 98 °C, 60 min, and 1:10, respectively. Different types of mordant is used for fixation. Because Mordanting gives more effective shade in case of dyeing with natural dyes. Here, silk produce fine shades by using different mordants but gives darker shade by using ferrous sulphate>alum, alum>tin>tannic acid. Cotton & Polyester gives average result & lighter shades than silk. but by using alum>tin Cotton gives dark shades than other mordants, by using ferrous sulphate>alum>tin polyester gives a little bit darker shade than other mordants.

Cite this article as: Burhan Uddin Banna, Rony Mia, Khaleda Sharmin Tanni, Nafisa Sultana, Al Mojnun Shamim, Rahat Khan Turzo, Foysal Khan Limon, Muhammad Tanjil;  Effectiveness of dyeing with dye extracted from mango leaves on different fabrics by using various mordants;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 123-144; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3519880

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Hualei Chen, Atogebania Wedam Julius, Dr. Samuel Kaba Akoriyia, Xiaoan Zhuo
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 109-122; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3519865
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to analyze Articles of nephron sparing surgery (NSS) to radical nephrectomy (RN) for Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), of two different surgical by means of the method of meta analysis, in order to provide evidence for clinical treatment of Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma. Methods:Articles including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studies around the world about nephron sparing surgery (NSS) to radical nephrectomy (RN) for Localized Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC), were searched by Pubmed, Ovid, CENTRAL(CochraneLibrary), EMBASE, EI, CBMdisc, VIP,WanFangData; studies were chosen at last for Meta-analysis. Results:In accordance with the inclusion criteria selected There were 16 RCTs studies of (NSS) versus RN for RCC included in this Meta-analysis.A total of 20972 patients from 16 studies were included,of which NSS group of 4952 and a RN group of 16020. After 3 years of cancer specific mortality relative risk (RR) RR=0.88,95%CI [0.70 1.12], P=0.30; after 5 years of cancer specific mortality relative risk (RR) RR=1.07,95%CI [0.75 1.51], P=0.71;After 7 years of cancer specific mortality relative risk (RR) RR=0.88,95%CI [0.77 1.01], P=0.07;the postoperative recurrence of tumor is the relative risk (RR) RR=1.03,95%CI [0.69 1.55], P=0.88; postoperative tumor metastasis comparison of relative risk was (RR) RR=0.99,95%CI [0.77 1.27], P=0.92; the occurrence of postoperative bleeding is the relative risk (RR) RR=1.58,95%CI [1.03 2.42], P=0.04; There were statistical significance;the occurrence of postoperative renal failure cases compared to the relative risk (RR) RR=0.97,95%CI [0.68 1.41], P=0.89; the occurrence of postoperative mortality compared to the relative risk( RR) RR=0.92,95%CI [0.68 1.23], P=0.56. Conclusions:There is no significant differences between NSS and RN with regard to five year cancer related mortality.Tumor recurrence and metastasis. NSS could maximally preserve the function of the remaining nephron and reduce the risk for kidney function failure.Although RN is superior in the prevention of prospective complications,NSS is an effective and reliable treatment for localized renal cell carcinoma.

Cite this article as: Hualei Chen, Atogebania Wedam Julius, Dr. Samuel Kaba Akoriyia, Xiaoan Zhuo;  Comparison of Nephron Sparing Surgery versus Radical Nephrectomy in patients with PT1B renal cell carcinoma A meta analysis of randomized controlled trials;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 109-122; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3519865

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Abdul Hakim, Faisal Hossain, Israt Jahan, M. Jamaluddin Ahmed
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 145-175; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3519939
Abstract: A very simple, ultra-sensitive and highly selective non-extractive spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of cadmium at ultra-trace levels using 2,3,4,5,7pentahydroxyflavone(morin) has been developed. Morin reacts in a slightly acidic (0.00050.002 M H2SO4) aqueous solution with cadmium and to form intensely fluorescent chelate, which has high fluorescence intensity ( ex =424 nm; em=485 nm).

Cite this article as: Abdul Hakim, Faisal Hossain, Israt Jahan, M. Jamaluddin Ahmed;  A Simple Spectrofluorimetric Method for the Determination of Cadmium at Ultratrace Levels in some Real, Environmental, Biological, Tobacco, Food, Fertilizer, and Soil Samples Using 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 pentahydroxyflavone;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 145-175; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3519939

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Dr. Amrih Patriotomo
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 98-108; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3515554
Abstract: : In this world has many languages are using for communication purposes, including English, Mandarin, Indonesian, Japanese, Korean and Arabic. One of the languages that is currently in great demand is Mandarin. The Chinese nation is the largest nation in the world with a population of more than one billion spreading all over the world. Almost in all countries can be easily found communities of Chinese descent. In Indonesia, communities of Chinese descent are often found in various regions.Seeing the conditions at this time the market demand for mastering Mandarin language is increasing, so in this case the author wants to give a little description and analysis of the "Functions and Benefits of Mandarin Language Learning", "Mistakes That Often Occur in Mandarin Language Learning, especially (Chinese Grammatical Errors and Phonetic Analysis—in Indonesian Scholars)" along with suggestions and methods for learning Mandarin Chinese.

Cite this article as: Dr. Amrih Patriotomo;  Chinese Grammatical Errors and Phonetic Analysis—in Indonesian Scholars (Kesalahan Tata Bahasa Mandarin dan Analisis Fonetik — pada Pelajar Indonesia );  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 98-108; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3515554

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Nasrullah Wazir, Tariq Aziz
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 62-72; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3510213
Abstract: Gallium arsenide (GaAs) films were grown on glass substrates by resistive heating technique under a vacuum pressure 7.6×10-5 mbar at room temperature. In an open environment, samples were post-annealed at the temperature 250oC, 280oC, and 320oC in a homemade tube furnace. Different characterizations of all post-annealed GaAs samples were done through X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). XRD analysis showed that the material has polycrystalline textures. Surface morphological structures were characterized by SEM. Elemental compositions were done by EDX and RBS, no evidence of contaminations found. Moreover, we derived that the post-annealing treatment was not affecting the GaAs thin films in an open environment.

Cite this article as: Nasrullah Wazir, Tariq Aziz;  Facile deposition of GaAs thin film on glass substrate via post annealing in open air;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 62-72; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3510213

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Mahfuz Ullah Arify, Mohammad Aimal Haqmal, Ahmad Gul Wasiq
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 73-85; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3510234
Abstract: The legal system of Afghanistan contains Islamic, Statutory and customary rules. It has developed over centuries and is presently varying in the context of the rebuilding of the Afghanistan. The supreme law of Afghanistan is the Constitution of Afghanistan. Furthermore, there is composite of legislation which stems from different historical eras. The so-called four volumes of civil law were formulated on the basis of Egyptian models and promulgated in the time of the monarchy. Other legislation came into force under of President Daoud Khan, the Democratic Republic (1978-1992), the Mujahideen (19921996), the Taliban regime (1996-2001) and the existing Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Article 130 of the Afghanistan Constitution establishes that judges must apply the constitution and legislation and may only resort to Hanafi Fiqh (one of the Schools of Islamic Law) if a essential legal rule cannot be found in the written laws. According to the Afghan law system, administration of justice, accused is presumed to be innocent till proved guilty. In such conditions, it is load upon prosecution to prove its case against the accused. But in certain circumstances, the weight of proving guilt of the accused move towards accused and the law makes the accused responsible to prove his innocence. This kind of condition ascends when accused after commission of crime taken a ground as a defense for the unlawful act done. It is named plea of defense. There are numerous bases existing to the accused in Afghanistan Penal Code (1925, 1975, and 2017). The Afghanistan Apex Courts while identifying the plea of Self-Defense delivered specific guide lines for the trial courts so as to evade any error of judgments since it is the central principle of administration of justice that accused should not be convicted if there is a miniature doubt on amount of the prosecution. In this article we will use the various judgments of the superior courts so as to grasp on a final conclusion that how accused can take advantage of the plea of self-defense and in what conditions the choice of self-defense cannot be look into contemplation.

Cite this article as: Mahfuz Ullah Arify, Mohammad Aimal Haqmal, Ahmad Gul Wasiq;  Self-Defense Legislations, Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: A Study from Afghanistan Perspective;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 73-85; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3510234

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Tafadzwa Natasha Mavengwa , Dinesh Sukamani (PhD), Mkhokheli Nyoni
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 43-61; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3489806
Abstract: This study aims to investigate and identify the factors that cause cost overrun in construction projects in Zimbabwe. To achieve the aim of this paper the following was done: identifying different factors that lead to cost overrun, collecting and analyzing questionnaires from the respondents and ranking the data according to its significance. The factors of cost overrun were ranked which, listed out the top ten factors. The top ten factors of cost overrun were: financial difficulties, currency changes, poor contract management, material price fluctuation, laws and regulations, poor feasibility and project analysis, delay in decision making, foreign labor permits, political interference and delay in approving design documents. The research assists in providing a better understanding of the factors of cost overrun in construction projects in Zimbabwe. The data was used to rank the factors according to their importance and also find the difference between the public and private sector using ANOVA test.

Cite this article as: Tafadzwa Natasha Mavengwa , Dinesh Sukamani (PhD), Mkhokheli Nyoni;  Factors Affecting Cost Overrun in Construction Projects in Zimbabwe;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 43-61; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3489806

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Mkhokheli Nyoni, Dinesh Sukamani (PhD), Tafadzwa Natasha Mavengwa
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 23-42; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3489804
Abstract: Developing countries construction projects are associated with various levels of risks. One of the common factors affecting risk management in developing countries is the lack of project management standards familiarity. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the most significant factors affecting risk management in developing countries construction projects. The research approach starts with extensive review of literature to provide several factors list which was also thoroughly looked at to reach final factors list that has all the factors that may affect risk management in developing countries construction projects. A set of 12 main factors and their sub-factors were selected and a survey by questionnaire was conducted to identify the most effective factors among them all. Results were further analyzed using the Relative information index (RII) and the Analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results indicated that factors related to government instability are the most dominant in developing countries. However, there are many other factors not to be ignored that have a greater impact in risk management in construction projects of developing countries.

Cite this article as: Mkhokheli Nyoni, Dinesh Sukamani (PhD), Tafadzwa Natasha Mavengwa;  Factors Affecting Risk Management in Developing Countries;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 23-42; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3489804

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Md Zannatul Arif, Umma Habiba Sadia, Md. A.Wazed
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 11-22; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3477679
Abstract: Now a day’s all over the world is focusing on the electricity sector. But this electricity market is facing the deregulated industry structure. Bangladesh is a typical developing country in South Asia. In Bangladesh; the power sector is improving gradually. After Independent Bangladesh has started the reform of the electricity sector and taken some initiative for blanching the power sector. In the power sector, some of the countries have created an environment where trading of electric energy is conducted in a market environment. In this environment, power producers compete for the market share through electricity trading. A potential trading system is very important for free and fair competitive electricity market action. We proposed in this paper the electricity trading market model of Bangladesh aspects based on the Nord pool Electricity market model. Also, we have shared some ideas and hidden issues of the electricity market that will flourish in the power sector.

Cite this article as: Md Zannatul Arif, Umma Habiba Sadia, Md. A.Wazed;  Proposed an Electricity Market Model for Bangladesh: Based on NORD Pool Model;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 11-22; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3477679

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 10
Li Dong Ying
2, Issue 10; October-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 1-10; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3473678
Abstract: As the economy continues to evolve, modern technology is impacting anything traditional. Apparel fabrics also follow the latest fashion life, replacing traditional handmade fabrics with modern machine fabrics. People who know the post-consciousness gradually discover the reliability of traditional handmade fabrics and begin to strive to recall and pursue natural fabrics from ancient times. As a result, most scholars have long distances in collecting traditional fabrics, some are field trips, others are collecting historical data and consulting documents. Of course, I personally can only verify the materials from ancient books, but the only ones familiar with the traditional Tujia brocade fabrics, so the combination of brocade fabrics and computer embroidery, with the greatest difference to confirm the traditional crafts and modern embroidery Combine.

Cite this article as: Li Dong Ying;  Comparative analysis of traditional handmade fabrics and modern machine fabrics - Traditional brocade craft and computer embroidery combined with DIY;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(10) : 1-10; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3473678

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