North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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February 2021


  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Ferdousi Akter
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2)328-335, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4574657
Abstract: CLT is one of the best Language Teaching Methods as it can improve the communication skill in the smartest way. Adopting different methods for developing the language teaching is not new in Bangladesh, and CLT is the latest addition. This method was adopted in Bangladesh in the 90s for developing the English Communication Skill of the secondary and higher secondary level students. In the light of this method, some conspicuous changes brought in the textbooks and question papers of those levels. All these changes are effective in stepping up the communication skill, but some severe problems exist in implementing this much acclaimed method.

Cite this article as: Ferdousi Akter;  Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) Method is how far Helpful for the Learners in the Context of Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 4(2)328-335, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4574657

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Attiqullah Abid Sherzad , Mohammad Jawad Niazi
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 320-327, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4574055
Abstract: The purpose of this review paper is to collect a comprehensive information towards the common functionalities and applications of the solar energy system. Solar energy is the production of sunlight, which can be used in the most part of human life. Sunlight is an abundant source and can be easily convert to the usable form of solar energy. Whenever sunlight irradiates the surface of specific materials such as solar heaters or panels leads to the generation of heat or electricity. To increase efficiency of the solar energy solar panels must be design with different shape and located such a way to absorb most part of the incident sunlight. In this study, functionalities of the solar energy system such as passive and active solar panels, efficiency, and its working principle have been presented. This review paper indicates that solar energy system can be design as passive or active. In passive system only thermal mass materials are used but active system needs to some equipment. Furthermore, for designing of an effective active system, cost, accuracy-sensor, reliability and efficiency factors must be considered. Moreover, some common applications of the solar energy that can be used in industries as electrical and heating energies have been reported. Meanwhile, solar energies are used depend on the requirement for water heating, heating of the building space, water distillation, water pumping and drying purposes. Data of this study has been collected from varies international scientific journals, online website and libraries textbooks.

Cite this article as: Attiqullah Abid Sherzad , Mohammad Jawad Niazi;  Common Functionalities and Applications of the Solar Energy System;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 320-327, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4574055

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Sudarshan Shrestha, Dinesh Acharya
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2)311-319, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4573025
Abstract: The use of solar dryer is slowly finding its way for food and other industrial drying in Nepal. Here in, we designed flat plate solar collector to make perfect black body by changing coating material on absorber metal plate with varied inclination of collector plate. The thermal performance analysis of a solar flat plate collector with black painting and selective coating has been carried out using outdoor test. The average thermal efficiency of black painted collector is 42.50%whereas for selective coated collector (67.62%) has more than existing collector. In order to supply the sufficient hot air from the collector to the chamber of heating application, the collector are installed at a slop of 45 and 37 facing south and operates in a closed loop mode with average inlet at 25C to 38C in Kathmandu valley with the ambient temperature of 24 C to 28C. The in-depth analysis of this work may provide important guidance for the more rational design and optimization of solar dryer from the view point of collector.

Cite this article as: Sudarshan Shrestha, Dinesh Acharya;  Thermal Analysis of the Flat Plate Collectors;  North American Academic Research, 4(2)311-319, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4573025

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Jawed Ahmed Jamali, Abdul Ghafoor Memon
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2)297-309, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4568879
Abstract: In this study, exergy, and economic analyses of a unit of 50 MW of Lakhra steam coal power plant, situated near Jamshoro Pakistan is presented. Firstly, a thermodynamic model is developed using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software and validated, followed by a parametric analysis to show the impacts of various operating parameters on the power plant performance. The condenser pressure, main steam pressure and temperature are selected as operating parameters while net power output, energy and exergy efficiencies are selected as performance parameters. The investigation under two conditions were performed; Designed and Off designed. Under designed parameters, the unit is simulated yielding 53.5 MW power output with 31.02% and 26.24 % energy and exergy efficiencies, respectively. While under off-designed conditions the unit yielded power output of 28.2MW, with energy and exergy efficiencies of 20.83% and 17.62%. The component-level analysis at designed conditions show condenser as a main contributor towards energy loss of 68.19% followed by boiler with energy loss of 24.7% while the latter plays a major role in the exergy destruction of the plant contributing of 93.84% (38.74 MW) out of total exergy destruction of 41.52 MW succeeded by feedwater heaters with exergy destruction of 2.94% (1.24 MW) and turbine with exergy destruction of 1.72% (0.71 MW) while the least exergy destruction happens in condenser. The first law efficiency of boiler, turbine, condenser is as 82.93%, 98.62% and 52.88 % respectively. While the second law efficiency of these components are as 67.2%, 94.89% and 94.89% respectively.

Cite this article as: Jawed Ahmed Jamali, Abdul Ghafoor Memon;  Energy and Exergy Analyses of Unit#2 of 50 MW of Lakhra Coal Power Plant (FBC) Jamshoro;  North American Academic Research, 4(2)297-309, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4568879

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Muneer Ahmad, Muzaffar Iqbal , Jihane Drissi , Aisha Hassan
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 264-279, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4565553
Abstract: The increasing threat of pandemic is severe challenge for supply chain sustainability (SCs). The deadly virus devasted the global economy and disrupt manufacturing along with supply chain operations around the globe. We therefore made this attempt to identify the enablers of sustainability for supply chain (SC) practices from the context of developing economies. The interpretive structural modeling (ISM) employed for the partitioning of sustainability enablers by developing contextual relationship. At next stage, Matriced Impacts Cruoses Multiplication Applique a un Classement (MICMAC) analysis used to classify enablers into different groups based on their driving and dependent power. The resultant hierarchical structure of ISM model shows that “Finance support (F3)” “Technological advancement (F2)” and “Develop sustainable procurement methods taking COVID-19 into consideration” are most influencing enablers of SCs to tackle the situation such as COVID-19. The findings of current study will provide guidelines to practitioners, policy makers, and government institutes to take initiatives for the practical implement of SCs by considering recommended factors.

Cite this article as: Muneer Ahmad, Muzaffar Iqbal , Jihane Drissi , Aisha Hassan;  Modeling of Supply Chain Sustainability Enablers by Considering the Impact of COVID-19 on Developing Countries;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 264-279, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4565553

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Halima B Ahmed
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 150-159, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4560058
Abstract: The study investigated the effect of internal control systems and financial performance of Dahabshil Remittance Company in Mogadishu Somalia. Internal control systems were looked at from the perspective of control environment, control activities and internal audit whereas financial performance focused on liquidity, profitability, market share and financial reporting as the measures of financial performance. The research was conducted using quantitative approaches using Correlation as Research Designs. Stratified and simple random samplings were also applied to collect data. Data was collected using questionnaire and interview as well as review of available documents and records targeting basically top managements, line manager/supervisors and operational staff as respondents from a population of 100 Dahabshil remittance company as sample size of 80. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists. The findings generally revealed that there is a significant relationship between control environment on financial performance [r = 98.8% P = .000]. The other remaining of 1.2% may be attributed to other factors indicates that the most contributed factor. The researcher found that management of the remittance is committed to the control systems, actively participates in monitoring and supervision of the activities of the Company in all the activities of the remittance were initiated by the top level management. The researcher also found that the internal audit department is understaffed, doesn’t conduct regular audit activities and doesn’t produce regular audit reports although the few reports produced by the internal audit department address weaknesses in the system.

Cite this article as: Halima B Ahmed;  The Effect of Internal Control System on Financial Performance (Case Study Dahabshil Remittance Company in Mogadishu-Somalia);  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 150-159, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4560058

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Noorzaman Bawari
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 179-198, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4560197
Abstract: The fundamental reason for this examination is to discover the best technique through iterative strategies for tackling the nonlinear equation. In this study, the four iterative techniques are analyzed and underscored to address the nonlinear equations. From this strategy clarified, the rate of convergence is shown among the first degree based iterative methods. From that point onward, the graphical development is set up here with the assistance of the four iterative methods and these outcomes are tested with various functions. An illustration of the algebraic equation is taken to show the comparison of the approximate error among the methods. Additionally, two instances of the algebraic and transcendental equation are applied to confirm the best technique, just as the degree of errors, are demonstrated graphically.

Cite this article as: Noorzaman Bawari;  A Novel Approach for Solving Non-Linear Equation;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 179-198, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4560197

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
M. Jamaluddin Ahmed , M. Anisul Islam , M. Edris Ali
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2)199-239, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4564142
Abstract: The present study was conducted to assess the toxic and heavy metals concentrations in water at different locations of the Karnafuli River. The assessment was carried out for various toxic and heavy metals concentrations in three seasons during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons for various continuous monitoring during the hydrological year 2014-2016. The statistical methods of sampling were used for collecting samples from different points of Karnafuli River. The samples were collected in high and low tide conditions. Since the water quality is expected to vary with season, multiple samples were collected at an interval of 2 to 3 weeks.

Cite this article as: M. Jamaluddin Ahmed , M. Anisul Islam , M. Edris Ali;  Studies of Toxic and Heavy Metals Pollution of Karnafuli River and Its Impact on Public Health of Chittagong, Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 4(2)199-239, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4564142

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Trisha Rahman
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 252-263, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4564490
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to assess t effect of Utility on Socioeconomic acceleration in Asia based on 52 countries/territories, while t effects of other variables that are also assumed to affect Socioeconomic acceleration are statistically controlled. For this purpose, this study explores different patterns of Socio-economic acceleration based on 18 ‘Socio-economic’ variables, including t Utility. There are six patterns of Socio-economic acceleration identified: (1) Utilitydriven; (2) export-led; (3) oil-rich; (4) savings-based; (5) government (public) spending-based and (6) domestic financing-based. Empirical evidences show that t dominance of t Utility-driven Socio-economic acceleration in Asia cannot be denied. T patterns found in Asia are shared with t rest of t world economy, yet there were some ‘uniqueness’ to t Asian patterns, which feature as follows: (1) high savings; (2) a large defense spending affected by both oil-richness and politics (authoritarian government); and (3) high ‘national’ global competiveness worldwide. And any negative ‘uniqueness’ to t Asian economy should be reassessed in light of t ‘multidimensionality’ of successful Utility-driven Socio-economic acceleration model as empirically proven in Asia.

Cite this article as: Trisha Rahman;  The Impact of Socio-Economic Development and Wellbeing of Asian Economy;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 252-263, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4564490

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Sherifath Chinaza Tahirou , Jianxun CHU , Ousmane Traore , Aurelia Naa Ayikaikor Ayi-Bonte , Lapologang Sebaka
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 280-296, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4568193
Abstract: The Nigerian economy has supported sustainable economic development with a variation of GDP for the past decades and at present. Specifically, the main objective of this study is to investigate the current relationship between the determinants of economic development and GDP in Nigeria for the period 1981 to 2017. This study used household final expenditure, FDI, government spending, export, and import to predict the variation of GDP. Initially, we performed the three root unit tests for each selected variable to validate whether the series is stationary or not before determining an optimal lag order and cointegration equation between the series. To assess the relationship within the variables, we applied Johansen cointegration tests. We further employed the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to evaluate the optimum lag order. The error correction term (ECT) was calculated to measure the GDP's adjustment speed to its equilibrium point. Also, Granger causality effects were assessed and the variance decomposition of the forecast error was also predicted. The results from ADF, PP, and KPSS test gave a strong conclusion that the series is stationary at the first difference. An adjustment coefficient value (- 0.0858) implies an 8.58 percent-speed correction of the preceding year's deviation from the long run. The ECT's significant p-values (0.0187) showed a long-run relationship between the selected independent variables and GDP. Thus, the estimated error variance of 67.13 percent of GDP would be triggered in the long term by FDI net inflows. Hence, this implies that FDI has a major effect on the Nigerian economy and GDP variation. From FDI to household consumption, government spending, import, as well as export, the unidirectional causality effect of Granger was observed. Our study recommends policymakers concentrate on foreign direct investment inflows to ensure sustainable economic development to enhance the GDP value in Nigeria. Policymakers are strongly encouraged to ensure political and economic stability to attract more foreign investors. Financial resources from FDI inflows can be dispersed impartially in the manufacturing and service sectors and hence the nation's export and import will effectively increase household and government spending.

Cite this article as: Sherifath Chinaza Tahirou , Jianxun CHU , Ousmane Traore , Aurelia Naa Ayikaikor Ayi-Bonte , Lapologang Sebaka;  Modeling the Assessment of Household Income and FDI Influence on Nigerian Economic Growth using Vector Autoregressive Approach;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 280-296, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4568193

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Adnan Faisal, Sun Xiufeng, Muhammad Safdar, Sattar Khan, Naveed Khan Walid, Aleem Ullah
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2)160-178, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4560139
Abstract: This article examines the effect of Audit Committee characteristics such as Independence, Expertise, Size and Diligence on Earnings Management in the light of the recent past (2017) amendment in the Code of Corporate Governance in Pakistan. The study has taken a sample of 172 non-financial companies from Pakistan Stock Exchange to checks the amendments impact on the Audit Committee composition. This study is covering 860 firm years observations from 2013 to 2017.

Cite this article as: Adnan Faisal, Sun Xiufeng, Muhammad Safdar, Sattar Khan, Naveed Khan Walid, Aleem Ullah;  Impact of Audit Committee Attributes on Earnings Management Practices: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan Stock Exchange;  North American Academic Research, 4(2)160-178, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4560139

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Md. Zamil Sultan , Shuhei Yagi , Kengo Takamiya , Hiroyuki Yaguchi and Osamu Ueda
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 240-251, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4564429
Abstract: We have investigated the influence of laser irradiation on the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of InGaAsN quantum wells (QWs) to emulate the performance degradation during device operation. The PL intensity was reduced with fast and slow components by laser irradiation with higher power densities. For a sample with a high nitrogen concentration of 1.3%, however, it is found that the PL intensity increases with irradiation time at laser power densities lower than ~240 kW/cm2 . The improvement in the PL intensity can be explained by the fact that annihilation of nitrogen-related as-grown defects by laser irradiation. The amount and rate of the PL intensity degradation of InGaAsN QWs with different N and In compositions by laser irradiation are also discussed. Thus, it is demonstrated that real-time PL measurements with high power density excitation are useful to the analysis of degradation processes.

Cite this article as: Md. Zamil Sultan , Shuhei Yagi , Kengo Takamiya , Hiroyuki Yaguchi and Osamu Ueda;  Influence of Laser Irradiation on the Photoluminescence Intensity of InGaAsN Quantum Wells;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 240-251, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4564429

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Hua Cao , Ling Yang , Li Ling , Bakht Zada
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 137-149, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4558326
Abstract: Academic self-efficacy is very important for high school students. Studies show that academic self-efficacy is influenced by childhood trauma and personality, especially childhood trauma, which may even affect the formation and development of individual personality. Time management disposition is a kind of personality based on time perspective. This study aimed to explore the relationship between childhood trauma, especially psychological abuse and neglect, time management disposition, and academic self-efficacy in high school students.

Cite this article as: Hua Cao , Ling Yang , Li Ling , Bakht Zada;  Childhood Trauma, Time Management Disposition and Academic Self-efficacy in High School Students;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 137-149, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4558326

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Md. Iusuf Khan, Jahid Khan, Habibullah Mohammad Jayed, Abdullah Al Ibrahim
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 100-114, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4549455
Abstract: Dyeing of cotton fabrics with reactive dyes (C.I. Reactive Red 195) using padding method (two dip two pad) was performed; the fixation of dyeing fabric had been done using either thermo fixation technique. Different parameters such as dyeing time, dye concentration, drying temperature and pH were utilized. The controllable factors such as dyeing time, dye concentration, drying temperature and pH have been used as input variables and KS value of the fabric (after dyeing and after soaping) to find out the variable for the construction of Taguchi model and Single Factor model. An L9 orthogonal array design has been chosen and conducted 9 experiments for each experiment.

Cite this article as: Md. Iusuf Khan, Jahid Khan, Habibullah Mohammad Jayed, Abdullah Al Ibrahim;  Application of L9 Taguchi Experimental design analysis based on Dip-pad-dry dyeing (C.P.V) of cotton fabric with reactive dyes;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 100-114, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4549455

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Majid Ali
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 1-31, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4506802
Abstract: China is the biggest Economy in the world and as well as big trading hub for Asian countries. In this paper we will study about targeting exports and Imports countries form the Whole world for Pakistan and China. How CPEC it will be more successful for both countries Pakistan and China. Because CPEC is a short way and the most important benefit for China under CPEC is to reduce China's trade routes from the existing sea routes from 12,000 kilometers to 2,000 kilometers. It is expected that the domestic trade between Pakistan and China will undergo major changes. And also reduce the total expensive of actual price of transportation. In this paper we study about the second phase of free trade agreement (FTA) which will be more bilateral trade and its benefits for both countries businessman to selling product in china and Pakistan. China has granted Pakistan to imports 783 duty free products without tariff lines that do not impose zero percent tariffs in CPFTA-l. And in this new phase CPFTA-ll Pakistani manufacturers and traders will be able to export about 313 new products to the Chinese market without tariffs. In this research we contain the latest international trade data for China and Pakistan including service trade data, and tariffs.

Cite this article as: Majid Ali;  Second Phase of China-Pakistan Free Trade Deal in Effect;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 1-31, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4506802

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Soukaina Sibaouaih , Nazir Ahsan Roky , Bashir Kabiru , Kazi Mohiuddin
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 85-99, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4540675
Abstract: The increasing global concerns such as climate change and energy use, port activities, and environmental effects have grown in recent years. As it is subject to a closer review of governing ecological enforcement, the port industry faces increasing challenges. Many attempts to promote sustainability such as green ports, sustainable ports. However, existing planning remains an issue for sustainable ports and green ports to achieve sustainability effectively. Through a literature review, this thesis aims to address these issues in sustainable port planning. Sustainable port planning and sustainable growth, and addressing generational demand for environmental protection strategies are essential findings. We propose bringing environment-friendly perspectives on sustainability from a maritime supply chain viewpoint into port planning. On this basis, the Green Port definition is suggested. This research offers detailed and comprehensive knowledge of green port strategies for sustainable port planning to overcome the global environmental challenges and sustainable development.

Cite this article as: Soukaina Sibaouaih , Nazir Ahsan Roky , Bashir Kabiru , Kazi Mohiuddin;  A Systematic Literature Review of Green Ports Strategies in Sustainable Port Planning;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 85-99, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4540675

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Nanieil Shaky
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 72-84, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4537695
Abstract: The hindered and unhindered obligation plays a significant role in Chinese family business. This paper tries to analyze the reasons for hindrances and unhindered within the traditional Chinese family culture. This will accomplish by measuring the aspects, complications and advantages. These processes will be understood by removing the hindrances and adopting the unhindered. This paper also tries to analyze the reasons for nepotism, cynicism, and succession within the traditional Chinese family culture. By measuring the positive and negative aspects of this relationship, the various stages in processes can be implemented to combat nepotism, cynicism, and poor succession planning

Cite this article as: Nanieil Shaky;  What does unsustainable business and sustainable business symbolize in hindered and unhindered of SMBs?;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 72-84, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4537695

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Farhana Akter, Min Su, Ophelia Amankwah
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 43-58, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4515670
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors that determine credit ratings provided by the top three credit rating agencies: Fitch Rating, Moody's, Standards and Poor. Key component analysis is Sused to determine the common factors affecting these components. A systematic analysis is used to determine the effect of the changes involved in these factors. Of the many variables used, the set of explanatory variables chosen in this study is very important in describing credit ratings. That said, six variables appear to be most relevant in determining a country's credit rating. The results show that sovereignty ratings are primarily affected by per capita income, government income, real exchange rate fluctuations, inflation and debt history.The study also highlighted the importance of corruption as measured by Transparency International's Corruption Awareness Index, which appears to be indicative of the country's economic growth and good governance.

Cite this article as: Farhana Akter, Min Su, Ophelia Amankwah;  Determinants & Impact of Sovereign Credit Ratings;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 43-58, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4515670

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Sayed Ziaurrahman Banouri
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 59-71, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4516565
Abstract: This research explores students' use of library resources among students in Laghman University, particularly examining the frequency, availability, and awareness of library resources among students. A quantitative research design with a descriptive approach has been employed to collect data from 70 participants from the faculty of agriculture, education, engineering and literature, and humanity of Laghman University. The data were descriptively analyzed using Statistical Software Package for Social Science (SPSS) Version 24 by mean and percentage. The significant finding reveals that the majority of the library users are un-willing from the library staff, they use printed books from the library resource, possess minimal skill of using library resources, and they also did not receive any information about the advanced and update of the library resource at Laghman university. Moreover, library resources' usefulness is not satisfying to the students because there are limited resources such as printed books, journal articles, and electronic resources. The collection is also incomplete, and having power, cut, lack of seating facility and up-to-date material are considered from the problems students were confronting daily. Finally, it is recommended that the university authority provide enough library resources such as books, journal articles, and online resources to meet the students' daily needs.

Cite this article as: Sayed Ziaurrahman Banouri;  Exploring Students' Utilization of Library Resources at Laghman University of Afghanistan;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 59-71, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4516565

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 2
Aksaraphak Kamolphutthana
Vol 4, Issue 2; February 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(2) 32-42, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4514722
Abstract: This research aims to compare and classify cultural vocabulary. Including studying the Chinese language and culture from the cultural vocabulary by comparing from the novel “Three Lives Three Worlds, Ten Miles of Peach Blossoms”, The Chinese version by TangQiGongZi and The Thai version by Suree Pruksanusak. It will be based on Peter Newmark's theory of language and culture help for comparison and analysis. Because in the process of translation, The big problem that translators have to face Is the interpretation of a word or language that must be linked to the culture of the other country, Peter Newmark discovered five cultural vocabulary that will connect language and culture together. To reduce the translation barriers, In terms of environmental culture, objects culture, social culture, language cultural, gestures and habits cultural. The research results found that the culture vocabulary has 298, the most discovered cultural vocabulary is related to language has 128 (42.96%), followed by cultural vocabulary related to society has 103 (34.56%), objects has 39 (13.09%), environment has 24 (8.05%), gestures and habits have 4 (1.35%). The language cultural words found are the use of family pronoun, calling myself, calling other people and names of positions. It shows that Chinese society is a society that adheres to the senior system, class division, respect and humility to older people. As for finding idioms and the connotation means that Chinese people often do not say anything directly, both in speaking and in writing, In order to maintain kindness and show one's own level of knowledge.

Cite this article as: Aksaraphak Kamolphutthana;  Cultural Vocabulary of Chinese Novel in “Three Lives Three Worlds, Ten Miles of Peach Blossoms”;  North American Academic Research, 4(2) 32-42, Feb 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4514722

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