North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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February 2020


  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Mounton Njoya Felix
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 543-570 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3692607
Abstract: It became clear during the 1990s that adult literacy must be an important part of all strategies for development. It should be noted that the way literacy is practiced in literacy centers determine the efficiency of literacy programs. The aim of this survey is to know if literacy practices in the Mfoundi Department in Yaoundé Cameroon is in accordance with the expectation of learners. I used survey as data collection method. My survey took place in 5 of the seven districts of the Mfoundi Department; because Yaoundé I and Yaoundé VII have no literacy center yet. The survey was conducted in 29 literacy centers with a total of 656 respondents. As for the findings, I discovered that literacy practices does not really reach the expectation of learners, and also that learners are more interested in functional aspect of literacy than the classical aspect. By writing this paper, my main hope is that it helps to sensitize those in charge of literacy program, such as to make them pay more attention to the carrying out of literacy practices in literacy centers.

Cite this article as: Mounton Njoya Felix;  A survey on Literacy practices in adult literacy centers in Cameroon: The Mfoundi Department;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 543-570 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3692607

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Ramatu Ussif, Murat Ertugrul
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 509-542 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3692114
Abstract: This article looks at whether financial regulations and Government policies have an impact on microfinance institutions operations in Ghana. It also looks at contributions that regulations and policies have on microfinance sector development in the country. The methodology for this paper is purely qualitative. The needed information was gathered from primary & secondary sources. The primary data source used face to face interviews, telephonic and through emails conducted with regulators, policymakers and microfinance institutions managers, using interview guide and focus group discussion guide. The secondary source was through literature reviews, books, journals, and the internet. The study revealed that financial regulations and government policies have contributed immensely to microfinance sector development through, training & capacity building, checks and balances, protecting customers and depositors, financial soundness and financial inclusion. However, despite the contribution of regulations and the policies to the sub-sector, the result of the study also identified poor regulations, lack of proper decentralization, lack of knowledge and weakness of regulators as problems with financial regulation. Furthermore, it also found out that, the policies formulated are weak and the implementation, monitoring, and supervision of the institutions is insufficient and ineffective. This article, therefore, recommends that Apex bodies should be involved in monitoring and supervision, minimum capital requirements should be made moderate, powers should be decentralized to the regional level for the effective functioning of regulations & policies in the country.

Cite this article as: Ramatu Ussif, Murat Ertugrul;  IMPACT OF REGULATIONS AND POLICIES ON MICROFINANCE SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 509-542 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3692114

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Ashok k Shah , Yu Jintian, Manita Kusi and Dinesh Sukamani
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 498-508 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3692107
Abstract: The issue of global warming is observing everywhere to find solutions. Along with Green building project success has remained an unclear problem in construction industry. Previous study found the critical success factor for green building project success, and communication was one of the main reason. In complex age, mobile technology for information and communication have possible to increase communication and share information in the green building. However, the use of mobile technology in the form of information and communication on green building project success have not studied sufficient wisdom. A focused group meeting has arranged from nine high project professional from different construction firm in Nepal for data collection. The finding of this study as use of mobile IC technology highly influence on project success by using mobile devise, tablets and laptops. Adding more in finding, proper guidance and knowledge on mobile application and software needed to all bottom to down level employee for better project productivity. This study highlights the implication of the study and mobile IC technology on safety and health for project team as well.

Cite this article as: Ashok k Shah , Yu Jintian, Manita Kusi and Dinesh Sukamani;  The effects of Mobile IC Technology on Green Building Project Success: A Developing Country Perspective;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 498-508 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3692107

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Mr. Iftikhar Ali, Dr. Arif Alam , Mr. Zulfiqar Ali , Mr. Yousuf Ali
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 439-450; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690261
Abstract: This study was aimed to identify and examine the physical and geographical impediments to female higher education in the high mountainous rural Nagar district of Pakistan. District Nagar is one of the ten districts of Gilgit-Baltistan province located in the extreme north of Pakistan. The study adopted a descriptive research design. Both primary and secondary data were used for this study. A sum of 160 sample size comprised of female students, parents and teachers were purposively selected. Primary data was collected through a wellstructured questionnaire from the field by interviewing 160 respondents and a five-point Likert scale was used to record the responses. While secondary data were retrieved from the literature review and government reports. The data was coded and analyzed with the help of excel sheet and presented in the form of charts and tables. The findings of the study revealed that lack of infrastructure, lack of transport services, the remoteness of education institutions and isolation from urban cities are the main physical and geographical impediments to female higher education in district Nagar. The researcher suggested that local and provincial governments should take some proactive steps to address the physical and geographical impediments to female higher education in the study area.

Cite this article as: Mr. Iftikhar Ali, Dr. Arif Alam , Mr. Zulfiqar Ali , Mr. Yousuf Ali;  Physical and Geographical Impediments to Female Higher Education in High Mountainous Nagar District, Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 439-450; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690261

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Noor Ahmed Paracha, Dr. Muhammad Asim, Salman Manzoor
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 451-472 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690283
Abstract: The analysis in the report was directed towards analyzing the impact of logistics service quality, relationship quality and switching barriers on customer loyalty in maritime logistics. The analysis has been performed in the context of Pakistan and the data was collected from freight forwarders. The sample size that was collected for the research was 200 and the sampling technique that was used was convenience sampling. The statistical techniques that were used for the purpose of analysis were regression, correlation and reliability analysis. The findings that were obtained through the analysis were that service quality in the form of operational and relationship loyalty, relationship in the form of trust and commitment and the switching barriers such as cost, availability of alternatives affect the loyalty of the freight forwarders with the shipping companies in Pakistan. The findings of the research are expected to be significant for the shipping companies operating in Pakistan.

Cite this article as: Noor Ahmed Paracha, Dr. Muhammad Asim, Salman Manzoor;  Relationship Management in International Supply Chains involving Maritime Transport : The role of Logistics service quality, relationship quality and Switching Barriers in creating customer loyalty;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 451-472 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690283

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Dr. Siddhartha Manandhar , Dr. Prami Nakarmi, Nishchal Baniya
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 473-497 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690311
Abstract: Novel coronavirus, assigned as 2019-nCoV, rose in Wuhan, China, toward the finish of 2019. As of January 24, 2020, in any event 830 cases had been analyzed in nine nations: China, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Vietnam, Taiwan, Nepal, and the United States. Twenty-six fatalities happened, for the most part in patients who had genuine hidden illness.1 Although numerous subtleties of the rise of this infection —, for example, its birthplace and its capacity to spread among people — stay obscure, an expanding number of cases seem to have come about because of human-to-human transmission. Given the serious intense respiratory disorder coronavirus (SARS-CoV) episode in 2002 and the Middle East respiratory disorder coronavirus (MERS-CoV) flare-up in 2012,2 2019-nCoV is the third coronavirus to develop in the human populace in the previous two decades — a rise that has put worldwide general wellbeing establishments on high alarm.

Cite this article as: Dr. Siddhartha Manandhar , Dr. Prami Nakarmi, Nishchal Baniya;  A Novel Coronavirus Emerging in World — Key Questions for Developing Countries and Under Developed Countries;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 473-497 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690311

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
M. Jamaluddin Ahmed, Ahmed Jubaer, Md. Khorshed Ali, Md. Aminul Ahsan
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 398-417 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3678993
Abstract: Air pollution has significant effects on exacerbation of asthma, allergy and other respiratory diseases. There is a great need to implement control measures in most of the megacities of the world to improve air quality and hence protect public health. Like many other megacities in the world the ambient air quality of Chittagong is also being deteriorated day by day. Main sources of air pollution in this city are arising out of the emission from the motorvehicles, industries, galvanisms, etc. Considering the severity of the problem, the current study plan was undertaken to measure the gaseous pollutants level in the air of different urban locations of Chittagong, the second largest city of Bangladesh. Atmospheric pollutants like gaseous (SO2, NO2), particulate matters (SPM) were determined in Chittagong city. Eight different sampling stations, Muradpur Circle, WASA Circle, G.E.C Circle, Proborthak Circle, Chawk-bazaar Circle, Olongkar Circle, New Market Circle and Oxygen Circle were selected for sample collection and observations during the atmospheric year 2013 -2014. The objective of the study was to determine the concentrations of gaseous pollutants (SOx, NOx) and particulate matters (SPM, PM2.5 and PM10) to find out the variation of air pollutants in different locations of Chittagong city. The concentration of gaseous pollutants was found more at highly traffic areas. The highest concentration value of SO2, NO2and SPM was observed in highly traffic area at Muradpur Circle, Olongkar Circle & New Market Circle, respectively. The lowest concentration value was found in less traffic area at WASA Circle & Proborthak Circle. The average results of gaseous pollutants, particulate matters and trace metals have been compared to national and international standards. The value of SPM in air of Chittagong city is higher than that of TLV value recommended by WHO and DOE. The elemental concentrations (e.g. Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Hg, Ni and Zn) of ambient air that collected at different locations in Chittagong city is exceeded the TLV. A strategic air quality management plan has been proposed.

Cite this article as: M. Jamaluddin Ahmed, Ahmed Jubaer, Md. Khorshed Ali, Md. Aminul Ahsan;  Assessment of the Status of Urban Air Pollution and its Impact on Human Health in the City of Chittagong;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 398-417 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3678993

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
David Kayembe Mwimbi (PhD) , Shuqijin (PhD) , Liang Yi(PhD) , Zhang Gaochenxi (PhD), Ella Wang (PhD) , Judy Zhu (MD) , Wang Dan
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 02; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690249
Abstract: To explore the potential benefit of Acupuncture, a systematic review (S.R) was undertaken of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the therapeutic Effect of Electro- Acupuncture for Primary Insomnia (P.I) women with perimenaupose. Women with diary-defined sleep deficiency reported more depressive symptoms (P=0.02) and perceived more depressive symptoms (p<0.01) than those who were not sleep deficient. Although there are few direct cross-cultural comparisons of insomnia, a worldwide study found that the highest prevalence rates of insomnia were in Brazil (79, 8%), followed by South Africa (45, 3%), Eastern Europe (32%), Asia (28, 3%). Methods: A comprehensive Study was conducted by four independent computerized literature databases which selected randomized clinical trials from the EBSCO Host electronic database. This database included (Pub Med, COCHRANE Central Register of Controlled Trails from database inception; and CNKI, web of science WANG FANG). Furthermore, randomized controlled trials are going to be published on 2019 without restriction to the language. Risk of bias was determined by the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool. Therefore, the methodological quality of the included randomized controlled trials was assessed using de Jadad score, and the reporting of the included studies was evaluated by the Rev. Man 5.3.

Cite this article as: David Kayembe Mwimbi (PhD) , Shuqijin (PhD) , Liang Yi(PhD) , Zhang Gaochenxi (PhD), Ella Wang (PhD) , Judy Zhu (MD) , Wang Dan;  A Meta-Analysis of randomized Controlled trials (R.C.Ts) On The Therapeutic Effect of Electro-Acupuncture for Primary Insomnia women with perimenaupose.;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 02; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3690249

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Sankalp Shah Shankar, Shankar Tripathi, Garima Sharma , Catherine Mhae Buctuan Jandug , Gunjan Gahatraj, Deepak Gautam
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 304-316 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3669397
Abstract: The research was focused to quantify and compare variation of carbon stock (above and below ground) with various age stands in planted living biomass of Eucalyptus forest. Four sample plots were established in each hector for single aged plantation area. Concentric circular plots were established to measure forest biomass. Eucalyptus plants of different stand age up to pole were measured establishing circle of radius 5.64 m. For determining soil carbon content, 3 soil samples (0-10 cm, 11-20 cm and 21-30 cm) up to a depth of 30 cm were collected randomly and made composite mixing soil from each sample plots in same proportion. Collected soil sample were tested in laboratory to determine the carbon content. The data obtained from lab were analyzed with the carbon stock calculation formula proposed by Pukkala (1990) and Walkley (1958). It was carried out to assess and quantify the soil and vegetation carbon stock as well as carbon stock variation in soil and vegetation in Eucalyptus forest with variation in stand age. Random sampling was used for the estimation of above ground and below ground biomass. The biomass carbon content was taken 47% of the dry biomass as followed by Total stem volume was calculated using equation developed by Chave et. al. (2005). Root carbon was calculated as 12.5% of above ground carbon. The average bulk density of Ratuwamai Afforestation Project (RAP) was found to be 1.44 gm./cu.cm. Similarly the average soil organic carbon percent of RAP was found to be 1.19. And the average soil organic carbon percent in 0-10 cm, 11-20 cm & 21-30 cm was 1.61, 1.19 & 0.91 respectively. The total amount of soil organic carbon up to 30 cm depth in RAP was 35.97 t/ha. The carbon stock in Eucalyptus was increased with the increase in stand age. The soil carbon was fluctuated with age as well as with the presence & absence of the vegetation.

Cite this article as: Sankalp Shah Shankar, Shankar Tripathi, Garima Sharma , Catherine Mhae Buctuan Jandug , Gunjan Gahatraj, Deepak Gautam;  An Assessment of Carbon Stock in Eucalyptus Forest with Variation in Stand Age in Rawatamai Afforestation Project Area, Jhapa, Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 304-316 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3669397

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Papel Tanchangya, Chu Yingjing, Nazmul Hasan Chowdhury
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 420-438 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3685356
Abstract: Social entrepreneurship is relatively a new concept or a new way of doing business which has been gaining a lot of attention in the business world. Not only this concept is being focused by the entrepreneurs, public sector or civil society but also the academic community is paying attention towards this subject through the production of the research paper. This paper is an attempt of creating an understanding towards the role of job creation by social entrepreneurs in reducing the poverty around the world which is a great concern for the nations. Poverty is one of the main challenges in global economic development. United Nations has reported that around 1.3 billion people around the world are multidimensional poor that not only means low income but also another number of indicators such as poor quality of life, poor health, and low-quality education. These indicators are linked with lower income because lower the income lower will be the expenditures. Thus, job creation acts as a path way that ensures the availability of money for the poor people so that they can spend it on their needs especially on the education and health which apparently lead them to have a better quality of life. The researcher has chosen qualitative research design because the nature of the topic in consideration does not incorporate any numerical information that is why the qualitative research design is more appropriate than quantitative design. The findings of the study highlight some ways or strategies that can be adopted by social entrepreneurs in order to increase job creation as well as this study give some useful suggestions than can help the social entrepreneurs to ensure their contribution in poverty reduction

Cite this article as: Papel Tanchangya, Chu Yingjing, Nazmul Hasan Chowdhury;  SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS ROLE ON POVERTY REDUCTION THROUGH JOB CREATION;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 420-438 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3685356

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
David Kayembe Mwimbi (MS, PhD), Shuqijin(MS, PhD), Zhang Gaochenxi (MS, PhD),Wang Dan (MS), Ella Wang (PhD), Judy Zhu (MD)
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 350-378 , https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3677567
Abstract: Several systematic reviews for Therapeutic Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine plus Chemotherapy Versus to treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy alone for Non-Small Cell Lungs Carcinoma among Male and Women Adult Patients (25 to 75 years old) have recently emerged. Their results are far from uniform. So therefore, Lungs Cancer related diseases have a profound economic impact on health care systems global wide, thus Kanglaite Injection combined with Docetaxel plus Cisplatin have been shown to have beneficial effects than treatment with platinum-based chemotherapy alone.

Cite this article as: David Kayembe Mwimbi (MS, PhD), Shuqijin(MS, PhD), Zhang Gaochenxi (MS, PhD),Wang Dan (MS), Ella Wang (PhD), Judy Zhu (MD);  Therapeutic Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine (Kanglaite Injection) plus Chemotherapy (Docetaxel plus Cisplatin) Versus Treatment with platinum-based Chemotherapy alone for Non-Small Cell Lungs Carcinoma Among Male and Women Adult Patients (25 to 75 years old);  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 350-378 , https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3677567

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Felix Amoh-Siaw
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 378-393 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3678985
Abstract: The accusation that China is encircling India in the Indian Ocean through the “Spring of Pearls” became popular within the academic and media streams since 2004. With China financing the construction of ports along the coasts of friendly states in the South Asian region, the criticisms became harsher as opponents feared the “activation” of the so-called pearl strings. After almost two decades since the use of the phrase, there has not been any militarization (activation) of Chinese-sponsored ports. This paper seeks to explain why the “string of pearls” has not been “activated” to this day. It argues that the supposed “string of pearls” faces critical challenges in South Asia. Multi-party democracy (in other words the domestic politics) together with the Interests of the U.S and her allies, counter-responses from India, and self-imposed principles on the part of the Chinese government, will encumber any probable activation of the “pearl strings” into naval or military bases in South Asia.

Cite this article as: Felix Amoh-Siaw;  The “String of Pearls” in South Asia: Why there will always be a “Checkmate”;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 378-393 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3678985

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
David Kayembe Mwimbi (PhD) , Shuqijin (PhD) , Ella Wang (PhD) , Judy Zhu (MD), Zhang Gaochenxi (PhD) , Liang yi (PhD)
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 02; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3669391
Abstract: Community health Personnel’s (CHPs) are an increasingly important component of health systems and programs. Despite the recognized role of The Impact of Globalization on Motivation’s Personnel Health of the Tcm and Western Medicine in ensuring CHPs are effective, The Impact of Globalization on Motivation on Doctors is often under-supported by the Chinese government in Beijing. Little is known about what constitutes adequate Globalization and how different Globalization strategies influence performance, motivation, and retention in the world. Methods: To determine and evaluate The Impact of Globalization on Motivation’s Personnel Health of the Tcm and Western Medicine on the quality of Care in development countries including the strategies used in low- and middle-income Africa’s countries and discuss implementation and feasibility issues with a focus on (GMHPs).

Cite this article as: David Kayembe Mwimbi (PhD) , Shuqijin (PhD) , Ella Wang (PhD) , Judy Zhu (MD), Zhang Gaochenxi (PhD) , Liang yi (PhD);  Review Study of The Impact of Globalisation on Motivation’s Health Personnel of TCM And Western Medicine on The Quality of Care In Developing And Low Countries;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 02; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3669391

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Osei Seth
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 97-165; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3669373
Abstract: Different operations are involved in the processing of cassava tubers for consumptive or industrial purposes. Most of the operations have been mechanized successfully except the peeling process, which still poses to be a major global challenge to engineers, henceforth, full attention is needed to develop a scientific solution to boost cassava production in the world market. The objective of this work presents some Strengths and limitations, performance evaluations, theoretical models, different functions, future areas of focus, and factors affecting some cassava peeling machines developed like the abrasive peelers, knife-edge peelers, stationary outer-drum peelers, etc. The peeling machines reviewed operated within 40-1500 rpm speed range, have 45-100% peeling efficiency, 2.7-2400 kg/hr throughput capacity, and 0-44% flesh losses. Several factors like the tuber physic mechanical and the machine properties affected the performance of the machines, of which some were the parameters of the theoretical models developed. Generally, increased machine speed increased the flesh losses and the throughput capacity, but the peeling efficiency increased in some machines and got decreased in others. The mechanical and the chemical methods combined in some of the works could not yield the desired result, it rather increased food losses. From the study, cassava peeling machine with a 100% peeling efficiency and 0% flesh losses, that is capable of giving the desired result has not been developed yet, hence, an artificial intelligence and biosensing technology should be considered in future developments.

Cite this article as: Osei Seth;  A Review on the performance of some cassava peeling machines developed;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 97-165; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3669373

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Akpotuzor Sylvia A. , Ofem Ajah O. , Agana Moses A.
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 30-58 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3660159
Abstract: This research developed a Web-based Monitoring System for Optimal collection and Disposal of Solid Waste using Geographic Information System (GIS) with the aim of improving an effective waste management system and also providing a geographical view of waste collection bins and their locations in the study area. The rationale of this research was to provide a geo-spatial view of solid waste bins by allowing the public lodge complaints about filled waste bins in the covered region and also reducing the transit time it takes for garbage truck drivers to dispose waste at the major dump-site. This work adopted the Ymodel web-GIS Development Methodology (YWDM) in developing the system. Also, object oriented analysis and design methods were used in developing the logical aspect of the system. On the analysis, development and implementation, the system uses Geographic Information System (GIS) combined with web technologies. While evaluating the system, as a proof of concept, dynamic tests were carried out during the validation process to test the functionalities of the system. Finding shows that the system can receive information dynamically at real time about waste bin situations within the study area and proactively take an action to evacuate wastes from storage locations. Transportation route was also optimized based on analysis of waste collection bin locations which results in ensuring that minimal time is spent on disposing wastes into the landfill. In conclusion, the work has shown that automating the waste management process by the use of a web-based monitoring system for optimal collection and disposal of solid wastes will improve waste management in Nigeria and beyond.

Cite this article as: Akpotuzor Sylvia A. , Ofem Ajah O. , Agana Moses A.;  Web-Based Monitoring System for Optimal Collection and Disposal of Solid Waste Using Geographic Information System (GIS);  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(2) : 30-58 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3660159

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Jamil Ahmed, Dr. Ambreen Shahriar, Sadia Inayat
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 3(2) : 15-29; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3660154
Abstract: The aim of this research was to critically analyze the microstructure of the oxford English Sindhi dictionary (2010). In order to achieve the aim of the study, an objective was set to find out the way information was presented in the microstructure of OESD (2010) which was the sample of the study. Afterwards, the study was designed qualitatively as per the nature of the study and it was decided after going through a huge corpora related to critical dictionary analysis. The dictionary was analyzed through content analysis. This required a sample to be selected and taken from every twentieth page of the dictionary. The results of the study were discussed descriptively. The results of the study showed that there was a lot of information present in the microstructure of the dictionary. This information was related to meaning, labels including word class, symbols, abbreviations etc. It also included pronunciation of words. First of all meaning was present at lexical level and in the form of definitions. Secondly, the word class of the entries was also given in front of them. Moreover, abbreviations and acronyms were also present in the microstructure but these were not differentiated from each other. Most importantly, certain phonemes were presented in a wrong way. That is to say the symbols which were given for the sounds did not represent the actual sounds of the given words. This was found to be one of the mistakes which might have taught the learners wrong pronunciation of the words.

Cite this article as: Jamil Ahmed, Dr. Ambreen Shahriar, Sadia Inayat;  Content Analysis of Microstructure of Oxford English Sindhi-Dictionary 2010;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 3(2) : 15-29; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3660154

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 2
Tanzina Akter
3, Issue 2; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 3(2) : 1-14; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3637680
Abstract: This paper audits the examination writing on the connection between parental association (PI) and scholastic accomplishment, with exceptional spotlight on the optional school (center and secondary school) level. The outcomes first present how singular PI factors correspond with scholastic accomplishment and afterward move to progressively complex examinations of numerous factors on the general build portrayed in the writing. A few PI factors with relationships to scholarly accomplishment show guarantee: (a) correspondence among kids and guardians about school exercises and plans, (b) guardians holding elevated requirements/desires for their kids' tutoring, and (c) guardians utilizing a legitimate child rearing style. We end the outcomes area by talking about the discoveries considering the impediments of non experimental look into and the changed impacts of youngsters' versus guardians' points of view on scholastic accomplishment.

Cite this article as: Tanzina Akter;  A Review of the relationship between parental involvement and academic achievement of secondary school students;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 3(2) : 1-14; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3637680

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