North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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December 2020


  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Md. Zamil Sultan , and Md. Mehedi Islam
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 462-470, Dec 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4415333
Abstract: We have reported comparatively the influences of square- and triangular corrugations on the optical waveguide to be used as optical filter. To do this, the performance parameters, reflectance and transmittance have been derived for the two types of periodic corrugated waveguides. By visualizing reflectance and transmittance characteristics, it is found that both types of corrugated optical waveguide act as optical filter. It is also found that triangular corrugated filter gives better elimination than square corrugated waveguide filter. This study would be very helpful for the development of efficiency in the optical fiber communication systems

Cite this article as: Md. Zamil Sultan , and Md. Mehedi Islam;  Comparative Performance Analysis of Square- and Triangular Corrugated Optical Waveguides as Optical Filters;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 462-470, Dec 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4415333

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Arafat Habib , ANM Shamsul Islam , Mohammad Farhadul Haque , Emily Akter , Md Mahmudul Hasan
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 471-486, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4419552
Abstract: As a result of healthcare globalization, Asian countries such as Thailand, Singapore, India and Malaysia export healthcare services and became popular medical tourist destination for patients from Bangladesh. While other countries benefit from medical tourism, Bangladesh is not only lagging behind but also losing patients to these countries. The present study aimed to find out the level of client satisfaction among the outbound patients of Bangladesh. A crosssectional study was conducted among conveniently selected 133 respondents in visa centers of India, Thailand, Singapore and Malaysia in Dhaka city. Data were collected from the respondents using a semi-structured questionnaire through a face to face interview. Nearly half (56.4%) of the respondents were from the age group 45 to 59 years while the age range was 18 to 69. Two third (74.4%) of the respondents were male and the rest of them were female; among them 33.8% were graduated from university. About 88% of the respondents were from the Indian visa application center. None was there for seeking medical visas abroad the first time. All (100%) respondents gave positive opinion about the availability of Doctors, behavior of Doctors, the adequate time spent by Doctors, and Doctors’ briefing pertaining to diseases. 97% of the respondents were satisfied about the quality of diagnostic centers abroad. 94.7%, 85.7% and 94% were satisfied about the hospital hygienic condition, waste management and hospital staff behavior; respectively. This study explored how Bangladeshi patients receive medical care abroad and was tried to provide suggestions in order to draw medical tourists from neighboring countries while maintaining our patients’ health care services. By reducing the number of patients traveling for medical purposes, the loss of foreign exchange from the economy can also be prevented in Bangladesh.

Cite this article as: Arafat Habib , ANM Shamsul Islam , Mohammad Farhadul Haque , Emily Akter , Md Mahmudul Hasan;  Client Satisfaction Regarding Services Under Medical Tourism;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 471-486, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4419552

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Hemoon Kalani, Roopa Rani, Maha Raja Dahar, Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 427-440, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4406663
Abstract: : The ongoing pandemic, Covid-19 has influenced all nature of life on the globe, which no doubt has created a disastrous situation for all of the nations around the world. Where all sort of life is just stuck there a problem with educational attainment getting more severe loss and fatality. Access to quality education in developing countries is at risk, where educational technology is uneven and affordable. This study has diagnosis the ongoing issue of access to quality education in Pakistan during Covid-19 that how big population of the country is suffering from the problem of getting an education. The selected study has adopted the true-experimental quantitative research method to find the current situation of education in Public and Private universities. For this more than 400 teachers/faculty members and students of different public and private universities being participated in the study to find the fact about educational attainment during the pandemic. The study has to find drastic situations with online education, and suggesting emergency steps should be taken by government and academicians, civil society, and other humanitarian organizations. This study aims to identify possible hindrances during online classes in academic institutions that are occurring during online classes at different public and private universities in Pakistan. as the government, policymakers should take the required measures to improve the quality and access of online education during the ongoing novel coronavirus, COVID-19

Cite this article as: Hemoon Kalani, Roopa Rani, Maha Raja Dahar, Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah;  Impact of Covid-19 On Education from the Aspect of Online Education, Hindrances to Public and Private Universities of Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 427-440, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4406663

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Obameso Joseph O., Kuewumi Tolulope A.
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 455-461, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4407069
Abstract: : Lassa virus is a haemorrhagic illness linked with high morbidity and mortality in many West Africa countries resulting in about 5000 deaths annually. This study appraised trends and people’s perception toward Lassa fever outbreak in Nigeria using Akure as case study. Data collected through questionnaires from respondents were analyzed to generate frequencies and proportions, and associations between variables were tested using odds ratios at 95% confidence interval (CI). The study had a response rate of 57.5% with mean age (SD) of 19±5.9. There were 56 (48.7%) males and 59 (51.3%) females. Most respondents’ educational level showed that 52% had tertiary education while 41% had Secondary education. Forty-five percent (45%) of respondents were aware of Lassa fever outbreak and the major source of information was radiotelevision (44%). Among the determinants, occupation had the highest knowledge of Lassa fever with odd ratios (AOR) value of 4.36 at 95% CI (9.24, 2.06). The menace of COVID-19 outbreak has overshadowed the awarness of Lassa fever in Nigeria, this may suggest the increase cases of Lassa fever outbreak ever reported. Therefore, it is crucial to review the approach for controlling the spike in number and investigate the causes associated with deaths during Lassa fever epidemics.

Cite this article as: Obameso Joseph O., Kuewumi Tolulope A.;  Current Trends and People’s Perception Toward Lassa Fever Outbreak In Nigeria;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 455-461, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4407069

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Md. Shahidul Islam, Imran Mohammad Iftekhar Ashik , Kyle Jooste
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 342-351, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4408581
Abstract: The current exploration examines the likely monetary effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on Bangladesh and China economies utilizing an orderly audit approach. The reason effect relationship system demonstrated that the flare-up of COVID-19 hindered the (GDP) along with major monetary areas and markers in the Bangladesh and China economies. The short and since quite a while ago run anticipated situation indicated that, contrasted with the horticulture area, the administration and assembling areas will be a effected all the more genuinely in all Bangladesh and China nations. It was discovered that administrations in the district are making an honest effort to receive and actualize expansionary monetary methodologies to battle this circumstance. Numerous nations have remembered ranchers and united specialists for the public authority's help framework to use assets. To keep up the equilibrium of global exchange, the import and fare of basic things should be given unique help. To adapt to the present circumstance, governments can put away cash from different self-governing organizations to extend Micro, Small, and Medium Ventures (MSME). The discoveries of this examination will be useful for strategy organizers to figure suitable projects for short and since quite a while ago run requests, alongside monetary and financial arrangements to support and resuscitate the financial movement in world.

Cite this article as: Md. Shahidul Islam, Imran Mohammad Iftekhar Ashik , Kyle Jooste;  Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Bangladesh and China trade situation;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 342-351, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4408581

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Ma Jinsheng, Asif Mahmood
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 443-454, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4406985
Abstract: : With increasing the speed of the railways give rise to the noise generation and vibration in the environment. When the speed of the HSR increased than 300 km/h, the major noise contribution of the HSR is aerodynamic noise, it becomes leading noise and grow at the rate of sixth to the power of train speed. Subsequently, at higher speeds the contribution of aerodynamic noise will eventually exceeds the power (engine) and rolling noise and finally become the dominant contributor. This paper present, an approach to predict the noise contribution of the high speed railway noise by processing the noise of the railway in the MATLAB R2019b software. The most of the noise of the high speed railway is due to frequency less than 2000 Hz. The peak noise is lies in the frequency range of 400-1200 Hz, which is the noise due to bogie area noise. The soundPlan software is used to predict the effectiveness of the noise barrier. The construction of a 3 m high noise barrier along one side of the railway track resulted in the reduction of overall noise more than 10 dB(A) and even more if the noise barrier are constructed with noise absorbing materials having high density and coefficient of absorption.

Cite this article as: Ma Jinsheng, Asif Mahmood;  The Contribution of the High-Speed Railway Noise and Its Reduction Approaches;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 443-454, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4406985

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Shawon Talukdar, Maruf Hasan Rumi, Niaz Makhdum
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 323-341, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4396198
Abstract: Language is considered to be an important medium of communication which helps to connect people and bring them close to one another. Every year a huge number of indigenous people living in Bangladesh who face serious discrimination in getting quality education and employment due to language-based learning difficulty. The objective of the study was to identify how language problem is creating employment disparity between mainstream Bengali people and minority indigenous people. It also sought to find a solution of the issue and reduce discrimination for indigenous people. The research basically was conducted based on secondary literature support. The main reason behind the low literacy is that most of them have to study in Bengali medium rather than their mother tongue. Besides, the schools lack sufficient infrastructure and adequate teachers. It also increases the tendency of high drop out. Moreover, low literacy rate deprived them to enter into a better employment sector. It is suggested that the basic education should be in their mother tongue and quality teachers should be recruited in local level schools.

Cite this article as: Shawon Talukdar, Maruf Hasan Rumi, Niaz Makhdum;  Language Barrier in Getting Quality Education and Employment for CHT Indigenous People in Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 323-341, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4396198

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
MD RASHEDUZZAMAN
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 352-429, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4399637
Abstract: Human resource is an important advantage for the development business since this segment utilizes more workforces in its business exercises contrasted with different segments. Human asset rehearses are normally worried to pick up an incentive through improved aptitudes, experience, self-sufficiency, commitment, efficiency, and lost awareness. Enlisting the certified representatives is a standout amongst the most imperative and most basic pieces of human asset the board. The main focus of this research is to find out the process and way of recruiting employees for construction projects in Bangladesh done by Chinese companies. This study also focuses on the strategy of recruiting competent members for the company and organization. This study will equally help to understand about the effective way of recruiting and selecting employees and will also give an idea about the improvements needed during the process of recruitment. Both qualitative and quantitative data is used for research. The research method comprised interviews with experts, a questionnaire based on recruitment, and selection strategies were sent to a sample of 100 practitioners to elect the most important factors. SPSS V23.0 is used for data analysis. Findings reveal that most of the companies have a structured way to recruit their employees. If any vacancies occur, the campiness looks for the qualified people within the company. If not found, they go for different agencies. If not found again, they go for traditional advertisement or employer referrals. Respondents expressed that the method for enrolling and determination ought to be entirely followed so as to guarantee that the correct materials are accommodated the organization.

Cite this article as: MD RASHEDUZZAMAN;  Recruitment strategies for international projects- A case study on Chinese construction companies in Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 352-429, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4399637

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Muhammad Zahirul Islam FCMA
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12)141-164, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4383392
Abstract: The motivation behind this paper is to address the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) issues and to prescribes applied Kantian way of thinking to conceptualize the obligations and duties of an individual with respect to utilization of CSR in corporate administration rehearses. People do have a feeling of obligation and feeling of what is correct and what's up from a moral point of view. There is a requirement for a code of moral practice in business to urge people to apply their feeling of obligation at workers or the board. In this respects, Kant's way of thinking can function as a structure which will give a layout to think about issues in corporate administration from the viewpoint of ethical quality, equity, temperance and legislative issues. The paper opens the discussion on the requirement for a moral establishment or "good measurement" in corporate administration that goes past a public connection work out.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Zahirul Islam FCMA;  Corporate Social Responsibility and Kantian Approach to Business Ethics: An Integrative Framework;  North American Academic Research, 3(12)141-164, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4383392

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Tanzina Mahboob
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 308-322, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393745
Abstract: As the competition is increasing, all the private commercial banks are constantly looking for scope to develop credit operation and performance appraisal to the market. However tight control on the part of the Central bank, Bangladesh Bank restricts the scope for maneuvering in the market with new performance and credit risk management on loan portfolio operation. Therefore banks require finding out untapped market space for growth. Moreover, in this loan portfolio crunch time, it is crucial for any private banks to be able to perform efficiently and effectively. In that case if the bank is not being able to perform than the bank might go bankrupt which would have a significant impact on the economy of Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to analyze the performance of the loan portfolio of a private bank and also its credit policies which would show how the private commercial banks of Bangladesh lends to different kinds of clients. The paper also highlights how effective is the loan recovery system of the respective private bank. Findings revealed that the risk in case of account opening for loan purpose and for that find out the detail information of various clients and its verification process, also give an overview of the capacity of any private banks concern about its several areas of credit management, efficiency of following Bangladesh bank guidelines according to credit risk management.

Cite this article as: Tanzina Mahboob;  Credit Risk Management effect on loan portfolio of any private Commercial Bank of Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 308-322, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393745

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Din Mohammad Sharafmal, Sifatullah Shakir, Allah Nazar Atif, Ziarat Gul Mansoor
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 293-307, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393739
Abstract: : Water contamination is one of the important public health challenge in the world that humanity is facing in recently, access is to safe drinking water is essential for healthy life but waterborne disease is still a major cause of death in many parts of the world. The basis on which drinking water safety is judged is national standards or international guidelines. different substances are involve as water contaminants like inorganic, organic, bacterial and viral which constituent potential threat to water quality, chemical and microbial contaminants are responsible for various Human health problems. This review discusses detailed description of drinking water contaminants and human health effect in the consequent health problems, the data presented in this study are collected from various, national and international scientific journals.

Cite this article as: Din Mohammad Sharafmal, Sifatullah Shakir, Allah Nazar Atif, Ziarat Gul Mansoor;  Drinking water contamination and its impact on human health;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 293-307, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393739

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Sami Ul Haq Niazi , XinYu Hu, Professor Dong Xia
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 209-228, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391438
Abstract: The findings strongly, if not conclusively, indicate that on the proliferation of colon cells in culture the effect of some Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and on the two contributing parameters of cell proliferation, i.e., apoptosis and cell cycle, is exerted independent of their inhibitory effect on PG synthesis. A mechanism unrelated to inhibition of apoptosis in response to Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and PG synthesis that affects the cell cycle phase distribution is currently being sought.

Cite this article as: Sami Ul Haq Niazi , XinYu Hu, Professor Dong Xia;  The Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Nonsteroidal Drugs and Aspirin in Colon Cancer;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 209-228, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391438

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Nighat Zia ud Den , Muhammad Shahid , Mudasir Majeed ,Umar Daraz Khan , Amer Jamil , Sabah Javaid , Muhammad Imran Kanjal
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 275-292, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393137
Abstract: : Globally, resistance to antibiotics has become a big concern and has a significant effect on the health of patients. Effective treatment approached must be explored in order to resolve this problem. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus) is an essential medicinal plant with numerous biological and pharmacological potential that is helpful towards infectious diseases susceptible to multi-drugs.Therefore, present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant potential and antimicrobial activities of different extracts of Lemon Grass. Antioxidant potential of the plant was evaluated by different antioxidant parameters. Multidrug resistant gram positive and negative bacteria were collected from microbiology department. Comparative analysis of lemon grass was performed among aqueous, methanolic and aqueous extracts treated with different temperatures. Study results indicated that highest total phenolic contents were found in lemon grass extract treated at 170ºC while the least contents were found in methanolic extract. Due to higher contents of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, lemon grass exhibited good antioxidant potential by scavenging the free radicals and through reducing power assay. From the results it was found that the extracts of lemon grass have antimicrobial activity (>0.51 activity index) against tested Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial strains. The study concluded that lemon grass has therapeutic potential due to the presence of antioxidant compounds and its antimicrobial activity that makes it a potential source of medicines.

Cite this article as: Nighat Zia ud Den , Muhammad Shahid , Mudasir Majeed ,Umar Daraz Khan , Amer Jamil , Sabah Javaid , Muhammad Imran Kanjal;  Therapeutic effects of Lemon Grass (Cymbopogon citratus) against clinically important pathogens;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 275-292, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393137

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Tamirat Gibon Ginja , Xiaoduan Chen
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 229-253, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393129
Abstract: The professional development of teachers and teacher educators is of rising attention worldwide. However, while an increasing range of literature focuses on particular aspects of professional development, there is no integrative reviewed literature that shows the professional development of teacher and teacher educators in Ethiopia. This paper intends to review the related studies on this topic. Thirty-two papers were chosen on basis of exclusion and inclusion criteria to describe, analyse and discuss teacher and teacher educators’ professional development in Ethiopia since 1991. The results show the professional development initiatives helped teachers and teacher educators to construct knowledge, skills of doing action research, improve instructional practices and increase professional engagement. However, a low level of use of student-oriented techniques and, as a result, the poor performance of students reported. The findings of this review also highlight a need to reform professional standards for teacher educators. The review suggests more research is needed to show how professional development can contribute to enhancing teacher educator’s professional knowledge, skills, and engagement in Ethiopia.

Cite this article as: Tamirat Gibon Ginja , Xiaoduan Chen;  Review Study of Teachers and teacher educators’ professional development in Ethiopia;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 229-253, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393129

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Ayubu Ismail Ngao
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 254-274, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393132
Abstract: Widening admittance to higher education is the one among the most important agenda in 21st Century. As admittance in higher education increases rapidly, the quality and relevance of higher education services globally are receiving increased scrutiny and raising concerns. Different countries around the world adopted different techniques to increase students participation in higher education. Tanzania similar to many other countries adopted different approaches to increase students participation in higher education. Howerver, the reforms system has noted with several challenges which affected the quality of education provided. This study based on addressing Tanzania initiatives towards widening admittance to higher education and to challenge on the impacts including the quality of education provided. Finally, this study gives out the reccomendations for the improvements whereby the increasing access initiatives should be equivalent to the quality of education provided.

Cite this article as: Ayubu Ismail Ngao;  Widening Admittance to Higher Education in Tanzania: Approaches and Impacts;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 254-274, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4393132

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Sagir A. Mahmud , Hamisu Idi , Muhammad Mubarak Muhammad , Abubakar Adamu
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 183-193, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391345
Abstract: The study examined, ascertained and described the factors that influence poor performance on mathematics with reference to school based factors, parent’s socio-economic factors and students’ factors in senior secondary schools in Bauchi. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The target population was 4789 students, 132 mathematics teachers and 12 head teachers as respondents out of which 369 students, 132 head teachers as well as all the 12 head teaches were randomly selected and studied. The data was collected by the use of three structured questionnaires; student, teachers and head teachers’ questionnaires. Results of the study revealed that school based factors, parent’s socio-economic factors and students’ related factors have a significant effect on students’ Mathematics performance. It is also revealed that there are negative factors affecting teachers’ effectiveness in teaching Mathematics. It is recommended that the finding will give the stakeholders an insight into emerging issues on performance and influence the Ministry of Education (MOE), State Universal Basic Education Board (SEBEB), Teaching Services Commission (TSC) and other decision makers on policy formulation such as supervision and inspection by proper authorities, organizing mathematics inter and intra school competition, as well as enlightenment of parents on importance of children’s education. An awareness of these factors can help increase a teacher’s effectiveness if they are dealt.

Cite this article as: Sagir A. Mahmud , Hamisu Idi , Muhammad Mubarak Muhammad , Abubakar Adamu;  Factors Contributing to Poor Performance in Mathematics in Bauchi State;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 183-193, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391345

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Hamisu Idi , Sagir A. Mahmud , Muhammad Mubarak Muhammad , Abubakar Adamu
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 165-182, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391332
Abstract: :This study seeks to investigate selected family background factors that influence students’ academic achievement in senior secondary school in Bauchi state. To guide the study, four hypotheses were formulated and tested. The design for the study is comparative design. The sample for this study was 400 students randomly selected on the basis of 50% male and 50% female each from 253 schools in Bauchi state. The selection of schools is based on the three senatorial districts in the state on the proportion of 2: 6 : 2 (central, south and north) respectively. Questionnaire on the family background and influence was designed and tested. The data collected was analyzed using correlation, regression analysis and t – test statistic. The findings reveal that parental involvement, educational level, family size and socio – economic status significantly influence students’ performance. Student whose parents assisted in their academic work performed better than those who did not, while occupation had no effect on performance. However, unequal attention was given to male and female students. Furthermore, private schools performed more than public. It is concluded that parental educational background and availability of study facilities at home greatly influenced academic performance. Consequently, parents should endeavor to be involved in the academic activities of their children.

Cite this article as: Hamisu Idi , Sagir A. Mahmud , Muhammad Mubarak Muhammad , Abubakar Adamu;  Educational Level and Occupation as Predictors of Children’s Performance in Bauchi State;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 165-182, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391332

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Abdul Khalique Awan , Syed Haseeb Ul Hassan , Ahmad Qaisar , Misbah Thebo
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 194-208, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391349
Abstract: This article picks an 8-DoF, Light-Weight, flexible, and cost-effective Humanoid Robotic Manipulator as a Research topic and focuses on its design, implementation, control, and simulation. The primary task is to design the basic model by designing software. By keeping the degrees of freedom in mind, a simulation platform is selected to carry out the test of the model. For this purpose, the MATLAB and Simulink are opted to perform the simulations of the assigned tasks. After being comfortable with design and simulation platforms, the next step was to analyze the Kinematics of the Manipulator. So, for the kinematics computation, D-H Parameters are defined for forward and reverse kinematics. Finally, a series of experimental scenes such as Grasping ball and imitating action is intended to extensively examine the stability, accuracy, speed, and flexible movement of humanoid robotic manipulator LWH-Arm.

Cite this article as: Abdul Khalique Awan , Syed Haseeb Ul Hassan , Ahmad Qaisar , Misbah Thebo;  Modeling and MATLAB based Simulation of an 8-DoF Light-Weight Humanoid Manipulator;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 194-208, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4391349

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Thin Thin Htet, Defang Zeng
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 118-140, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4362302
Abstract: The purpose of this study is the preparation of a new category, high degradable efficiency, and low-cost composite COD remover. The composite COD remover was made by double oxidants composition method and coupling oxidants and flocculants composition method in a precise proportion. The best prepared composite COD remover was the R-1 [potassium ferrate (K2FeO4) and sodium chlorate (NaClO3)] composite COD remover at the pH of 6, reaction temperature 40, and 30 minutes reaction time. The maximum removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was 97.3 %. The best ratio of the new composite COD remover was 2:1. Compared with the commercial COD remover, the removal rate of COD increased by more than 16% and the treatment cost of wastewater decreased by more than 6%. Therefore, the new composite COD remover from this experimental study had great reaction performance, cost-effective and obvious economic and environmental benefits

Cite this article as: Thin Thin Htet, Defang Zeng;  Preparation and application of a new composite COD remover;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 118-140, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4362302

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Thet Yee Zin, Defang Zeng
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 94-117, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4362294
Abstract: In this study, Fenton oxidation process was improved by coupling of coagulation and further Fenton oxidation. A series of experiments such as coagulation, Fenton oxidation alone and the coupled coagulation–Fenton process were conducted with wastewater sample from pesticide industry. Compared with the Fenton process alone, the coupled coagulation–Fenton process has a good effect.The coupled coagulation–Fenton oxidation process has obvious economic and environmental benefits.

Cite this article as: Thet Yee Zin, Defang Zeng;  Study on improving Fenton oxidation process by coagulation;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 94-117, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4362294

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Amber Zarqa, Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah, Kashif Imran Zaidi
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 47-57, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4319959
Abstract: This article provides a brief overview of concerns related to the polluted and dangerous ship recycling industry. Particularly main serious concerns are about the worker's health and safety and the exercise of basic labor rights. The study found that labors are generally not privileged to be similar in ship recycling industry. Paper has disclosed that there is no overtime or paid holidays, ship breakers work long hours and there is usually no contract arrangement with yard management. When fire, disasters and explosions, fall from a height or are hit by large steel/iron blocks. During work, Workers are losing their lives and getting injures Labor rights do not exist; there are no unions and no collective bargaining to raise voice against the violations. The working and living conditions reflect a complete lack of standards. The International Labor Organization has developed guidelines to mitigate risks, problems and problems associated with shipwreck. Labor sought to find sustainable solutions for the swatch and safe disposal of ships.

Cite this article as: Amber Zarqa, Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah, Kashif Imran Zaidi;  Labor Rights Violation in Ship Recycling Industry: A critical review of International Labor Organization (ILO) Guidelines;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 47-57, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4319959

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Md. Tajul Islam, Ferdousi Akter
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 30-46, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4316067
Abstract: Enactment of Evidence Act 1872 was undoubtedly a historic touch stone towards in the administering Justice System both in the trial procedure of Civil & Criminal cases. It provides legal recognition and process of proving & marking documents as Exhibits during Trial both in administration Criminal Civil Justice System but still today several provisions of this law to the students, Advocates, and even to the Judges are too vague or unnecessarily criminalize legitimate expression. The main thrust of the paper is to examine the evolution of the legal provisions regarding the topics i.e. the mechanisms for proving & marking documents as Exhibits during Trial and how the documentary evidences have to be assessed in the process of administering or in the dispensation of Justice in our legal system and that theme of the topics of Evidence Act would be not only as a part of conventional element of proving cases but also to provide us with a glance of profound legal depth of different disposition moreover the Judges, advocates and student’s struggle to conquer the difficult situations in which they find themselves entrap with. This paper and research will attempt to devise some possible techniques or mechanism or system or method of proving and marking documents as evidence during trail so that justice can be more efficiently served to its seekers.

Cite this article as: Md. Tajul Islam, Ferdousi Akter;  Technique for Proving & Marking documents as Exhibits during Trial both in administration of Criminal & Civil Justice System: A Critical Review;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 30-46, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4316067

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Abdullahi M. Auwal , Abbas U. Farouk , Mijinyawa S. Labaran
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 72-93, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4331165
Abstract: Examining how a rumour spreads has been challenging, previous studies on social and psychological aspects of rumours have mainly been theory-driven and have relied on a small amount of manually collected anecdotal evidence. In this paper, a non-linear mathematical model for rumor spreading: vulnerability and its psychological effect has been proposed/developed and analyzed by using epidemiological approach, in which an ignorant individuals are refers to recruitment class and has a certain probability of becoming a spreader or stipler immediately upon hearing the rumor, and The whole population was assumed to be a constant and homogeneously mixed. The basic reproduction number is found. Equilibria have been analytically obtained and their local and global stability have been discussed. Conditions for the persistence of stipler have been determined. We mainly explore the mechanism of psychological effect in study of salt and water Ebola virus cure rumor of August 2014 in Nigeria. Finally, the obtained results are numerically validated and then discussed from both the mathematical and the sociological perspectives, and presented in the form of the graphics using Homotophy perturbation method

Cite this article as: Abdullahi M. Auwal , Abbas U. Farouk , Mijinyawa S. Labaran;  Rumor Spreading Model: Vulnerability and Its Psychological Effect in Study of Salt and Water Ebola Virus Cure Rumor of in Nigeria;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 72-93, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4331165

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Kalabu Salisu Ahmad , Usamatu Usman , Abdul Audu Ibrahim, Ibrahim Yusuf Inuwa
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 12-29, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4316014
Abstract: Substance-abuse mathematical model is proposed to study the dynamism of substanceabuse and its various stages of progression from the justification that substance abuse leads to substance addiction with the development of tolerance and dependence. We analyze the model where we prove existence and uniqueness of the solution to the system, positivity of the solution, invariant region of the solution, substance-free equilibrium state of the system and discuss local stability as well as global stability of the model at substance-free stability state. Epidemiological approach is adopted in proposing the mathematical model which enables scientists to study the dynamism of substance-abuse and its various stages of progression.

Cite this article as: Kalabu Salisu Ahmad , Usamatu Usman , Abdul Audu Ibrahim, Ibrahim Yusuf Inuwa;  Modelling of Substance-Abuse and Its Progression Stages;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 12-29, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4316014

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Ummey Hafsa Bithi, M. N. Uddin, Kanika Mitra
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 1-11, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4315823
Abstract: This study aimed to determine the anti-nutrients of cheese produced from soya beans by chemical processing. Effect of processing using a chemical method on anti-nutritional constituents of soybean seed meal and cheese were carried out. Levels of the anti-nutrients like tannin, oxalate, saponin, and phytate of the raw soya and cheese were determined. The percentage (%) of the studied anti-nutritional substances in the raw seed were obtained as tannin (0.168±0.003), phytate (0.470±0.004), oxaloacetate (0.109±0.002), and saponin (5.47±0.20). Processing, however, significantly reduced the levels of the anti-nutrients like tannin, oxalate, saponin, and phytate in the raw and cheese. The percentage of anti-nutritional levels in the raw seed after processing were found as tannin (0.009±.002), phytate (0.104±0.004), oxaloacetate (0.085±0.005), and saponin (2.53±0.04). Hence, the processing significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.001) improved the nutritional quality of the soy cheese and the product can be used as a good protein source.

Cite this article as: Ummey Hafsa Bithi, M. N. Uddin, Kanika Mitra;  Identification of anti-nutritional factors in soya cheese;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 1-11, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4315823

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 12
Lubna Hossain Lia
Vol 3, Issue 12 ; December 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(12) 58-65, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4320142
Abstract: Paper sector in Bangladesh is currently expanding day-by-day to meet the increasing demand of industrial, writing/printing and specialty papers. Paper mills have adverse eff ects on the environment by producing huge quantity of wastewater. Yearly, approximately 14 million m3 wastewater is being discharged to the surface water bodies and irrigated lands without no/limited treatment. Wastewater treatment is a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with acceptable impact on the environment, or reused for various purposes (called water reclamation).Four common ways to treat wastewater include physical water treatment, biological water treatment, chemical treatment, and sludge treatment.

Cite this article as: Lubna Hossain Lia;  Waste water treatment process of paper mill, pulp recovery and recycling techniques;  North American Academic Research, 3(12) 58-65, Dec 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4320142

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