North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

  • photo
  • photo

September 2019


  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Deepa Khanal , Deepak Gautam, Jyoti Bhandari, Suman Bhattarai, Gunjan Gahatraj , Catherine Mhae B. Jandug, Keshab Baral
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 142-152 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3598134
Abstract: We appraised contribution of Leasehold Forestry on household income in Sahidlakkhan Rural Municipality, Gorkha, Nepal based on key informant interview, household level questionnaire survey and group discussion among user groups and committee members. Lorenz curve and Gini coefficients were used to study the income inequality among sampled households. Average household income of the users found to be increased but inequality did exist among different economic classes. The poor spends more time in LHF activities and their income is also found more LHF with compare to rich and middle classes. Regular supervision in LHFUGs activities by forest specialist, special package program focusing to poorest HHs to improve their financial status are recommended and government should harmonize poor oriented concept of the leasehold forestry to Community Forestry program for sustainable forest management as forests are more important to them.

Cite this article as: Deepa Khanal , Deepak Gautam, Jyoti Bhandari, Suman Bhattarai, Gunjan Gahatraj , Catherine Mhae B. Jandug, Keshab Baral;  Contribution of Leasehold Forestry to Users Household Income in Sahidlakkhan Rural Municipality, Gorkha, Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 142-152 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3598134

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 164    Total Downloaded: 73

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Arrafy Rahman, Md. Ahasun Habib, Jyoti Sikder, Md. Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Most. Khalida Jinnath, Most. Fahima Khatun, Muhammad Abdul Hannan, Fahmida Khatun, Sonia Akter
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 126-141; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3459932
Abstract: Probiotic bacteria exert positive effects on human health. Among a wide range of health beneficial effects, the anti-allergic effect is an important one. One indication of allergic reaction is the increase in IgE level in our body. The mechanism initialized by probiotic bacteria leads to the decrease of IgE level that ultimately inhibits the allergic reactions. The present study is aimed to screen anti-allergic effect of native probiotics isolated from nectar. The probiotic bacteria were isolated from the nectar sample collected from Rangpur district of Bangladesh. The isolated probiotic bacteria were then subjected to morphological and biochemical tests. These morphological and biochemical tests allowed us to ensure that the isolated bacteria were the probiotic type. Then animal trial was conducted using these probiotic isolates. In the study, mice were used as the animal model. At the end of the trial, the blood samples isolated from different mice groups were analyzed. It has been found that, the probiotic isolates had significant effect (p<0.05) on the IgE level of the mice used this experiment. IgE levels of treatment group 1, treatment group 2 and treatment group 3 were found (9.76±0.2 IU/ml), (5.69±0.14 IU/ml) and (3.22±0.11 IU/ml), respectively. While the probiotic isolates had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the eosinophil count and peripheral lymphocyte count of the mice used the experiment.

Cite this article as: Arrafy Rahman, Md. Ahasun Habib, Jyoti Sikder, Md. Furkanur Rahaman Mizan, Most. Khalida Jinnath, Most. Fahima Khatun, Muhammad Abdul Hannan, Fahmida Khatun, Sonia Akter;  An Investigation on the Anti-allergic Impacts of the Native Probiotic Bacteria Isolated from the Honey Crop of Asian Honey Bees on Allergic Mice Model;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 126-141; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3459932

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 263    Total Downloaded: 145

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Md. Shadat Hossen, Atiqur Rahman
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 92-112; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3451502
Abstract: In the modern state mechanism, the concept of ‘transparency’ gets more importance incessantly. Citizens are interested to see accountable and transparent government. A Hidden, ambiguous, unfair technique, in the government activities are caused of disrelish of its citizen. People are interested to know what, why and how government performs and runs. It indicates the consciousness as well as the legal expectation that government all activities are visible and understandable. Bangladesh, as a modern and democratic state also includes right to freedom of thought and conscience and of speech of the citizen as fundamental rights in article 39 of its Constitution. Besides, Article 11 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh guarantees basic human rights including access to information. For ensuring transparency of the government functions, the Constitution has guaranteed the freedom of thought and conscience. Access to information and freedom of expression are closely connected. If information is not available, the freedom of expression will be meaningless. The 1990s marked as era media freedom as granted in the constitution. Despite the freedom, the media face many challenges in performing their functions. After long time in 2009 the government has enacted the right to information Act. Besides the Universal Declaration of Human Rights have recognized freedom of expression and opinion as a Human Rights. For making the declartion mandatory, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by UN General Assembly resolution 22004 (XXI) of 16 December 1966 and became effective on 23rd March 1976. Bangladesh ratified the ICCPR in 2000 and is pleased bound to guarantee access to information to all its citizens. In spite of above legal instrument the government can’t ensure transparency as well as freedom of expression properly. Therefore, this research will highlight the legal and institutional structure of transparency in Bangladesh henceforth an analysis of impoverished transparency caused by some contradictory Acts of the country itself.

Cite this article as: Md. Shadat Hossen, Atiqur Rahman;  Legal and Institutional Mechanism of Transparency: Bangladesh Perspective;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 92-112; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3451502

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 551    Total Downloaded: 92

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Nishchal Baniya
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 113-125; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3457643
Abstract: : A two-stage process using aqueous ammonia and hot-water has been investigated to fractionate corn stover. To optimize the fractionation process so that hemicellulose recovery and purity in the liquid hydrolysate were maximized, the experiments were carried out employing response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design (CCD) was used to evaluate and confirm the effectiveness and interactions of factors. The optimal fractionation conditions were determined to be as follow: (1) First-stage reactor operated in batch mode using a 15% NH4OH solution (WNH3 =15%) at 1:10 solid:liquid ratio, 60 °C and 24 h; (2) second stage percolation reactor operated using hot-water at 20 ml/min, 200 °C, and 10 min. The model predicted 51.5% xylan recovery yield and 82.4% xylan purity under these conditions. Experiments confirmed the maximum xylan recovery yield and purity were 54.7% and 83.9% respectively under the optimal reaction conditions.

Cite this article as: Nishchal Baniya;  Conversion of Ligno Cellulose to Biofuel;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 113-125; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3457643

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 943    Total Downloaded: 135

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Sunil Kumar Yadav, Jay Krishna Yadav, Nageshwar Kumar Yadav
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 84-91; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3441608
Abstract: Today’s global competition has prompted many automotive manufacturers to design their products based on consumer’s preference and satisfaction. A car driver controls the vehicle and his/her comfort and safety is important to avoid any road injury or unfortunate accident. There are three main objectives for this paper. This paper is to investigate the relationships between car drivers’ anthropometric characteristics, comfortable postural angles and seat adjustment, to analyze the force distribution on the car seat and to design a driver car seat that gives comfort and safety ergonomically to the driver. In this case, the measurements need to be taken for both car and the driver and also to propose a design a driver car seat that provides comfort and safety to the driver. This design should be based on ergonomic factors including design, materials used and safety. These findings enhance our understandings of car drivers’ perceptions of posture comfort and safety. The data findings and relationship discussed will assist the manufacturers in designing a drivers’ car seat with ergonomics value.

Cite this article as: Sunil Kumar Yadav, Jay Krishna Yadav, Nageshwar Kumar Yadav;  Assessment of seat design based on buttock pressure and anthropometrics data;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 84-91; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3441608

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 225    Total Downloaded: 142

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Suraiya Sultana, Elvis Mittra, Rony Mia, Al Mojnun Shamim, Miraduzzaman Chowdhury, Afshan Zareen, Bayazid Bustami Shaun, Zhongmin Deng, Mafzal Ahmed
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 46-83; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3406857
Abstract: The aim of this study is increasing inter-yarn friction by using newly developed multi directionally stitched structures for superior ballistic protection of Kevlar fabrics. The para-aramid woven texture was utilized. The structures were in unstitched and sewed structures. In the stitching part used Cotton yarns line the structure in one, two and four bearings though Kevlar® yarn was used to make as it were the four-directionally-sewed structures in six designs with one and two layers. The yarn pull out apparatus was created and the yarn pullout test was performed on single woven texture and sewed structures. Flexural rigidity for fabric is the essential properties, particularly for Ballistic application of superior fabrics and Optical Microscopic test done to watch the progress of the pulled-out portion. Ballistic tests were performed on the structures using 9 mm. In the event that the connected dynamic vitality level is under the yarn breaking expansion, crease in the symmetrical yarns at the fabric structure is right off the bat expelled, and from that point yarn pull out happens in the structure plane and later stage fabric distortion happens in the out-of-plane course of the structure. This wonder proceeds from the outside to the inside layers. In the event that the connected motor vitality level is over the yarn breaking expansion, right off the bat incomplete also, add up to fiber breakages and along these lines crease evacuation and yarn pull out stages happen. These wonders occur as different yarn disappointment in the external layers and for the most part pleat evacuation also, yarn pull out towards within layers happen. In the two cases, fabric and structure bowing were disregarded. The vitality retention dimension of the sewed structures was somewhat higher than that of the unstitched structures because of the way that some of the vitality was retained to delaminate the interlayer, which was bolted by the sewing yarns. Moreover, the tapered profundity in the sewed structure was low contrasted and that of the unstitched structure.

Cite this article as: Suraiya Sultana, Elvis Mittra, Rony Mia, Al Mojnun Shamim, Miraduzzaman Chowdhury, Afshan Zareen, Bayazid Bustami Shaun, Zhongmin Deng, Mafzal Ahmed;  Study on the effects of Multilayered and Multi-Directional Stitched on the Ballistic performance of Kevlar fabric;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 46-83; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3406857

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 285    Total Downloaded: 161

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Taslima Jahan, Dr. Md. Nazirul Islam, Md. Sadiqur Rahman, Afroza Begum
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 29-45; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3405622
Abstract: To know about the genetic diversity of 80 accessions of ridge gourd, an experiment was designed in the experimental field of Plant Genetic Resources Centre (PGRC) of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Joydebpur, Gazipur, during the Rabi season of 2017-18. Eighty germplasm of ridge gourd were included in the experiment but out of them only 44 germplasm were germinated and among them finally seeds of 40 collections could be collected for characterization. Wide variations were found in both qualitative and quantitative characters among the germplasm and concerning all the characters, the TT-177, AR-197, ATR-18, AHM-215, AC-338, TT-167, AMA-244, KI-38, N-6, RAI-296, AMA-395, AMA-182, TT-26, RC-155, BD-10281 and BD-10282 germplasm were the promising lines for future breeding programs and other research also. germplasm were found as the promising lines.

Cite this article as: Taslima Jahan, Dr. Md. Nazirul Islam, Md. Sadiqur Rahman, Afroza Begum;  Characterization of Ridge Gourd Germplasm;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 29-45; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3405622

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 222    Total Downloaded: 122

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Parimal Kumar Roy
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 14-28; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3386549
Abstract: As a worldwide phenomenon, Prostitution exists in all countries but its form and types are different. Despite the relationship between state and prostitution is inseparable, we should know the state’s approach to prostitution management, which has been explored in this paper. Anthropological research methodologies – participant observation, depth interview – were research tools for primary data collection in a qualitative manner. Previous researched books, related journal, are also used as a secondary data source. As risky job, only limited number respondents are interviewed using the snowball research techniques in 2005 in Sylhet city. Although, free market economy instigates to the prostitution and state is associated with profession. So, overall woman’s position has been identified in Prostitution which is a work or profession whatever we like to say it. But state role is leaning to man and against to devastating to this profession.

Cite this article as: Parimal Kumar Roy;  The role of state in Prostitution: An anthropological exploration in a frontier city of Bangladesh;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 14-28; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3386549

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 235    Total Downloaded: 129

  Volume: 2 Issue: 9
Lazina Hossain Neshe
2, Issue 9; September-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 01-13; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3384353
Abstract: This article displays the consequences of an examination concerning the spot of English in the educational plan in China. The examination shows that the development of English as a worldwide language is having significant effect on approaches and practices in all nations reviewed. Be that as it may, it likewise uncovers critical issues, including perplexity and irregularity, at the degree of arrangement, especially with respect to the issue of period of beginning guidance, imbalance in regards to access to compelling language guidance, deficiently prepared and talented educators, and a disjunction between educational plan talk and academic reality.

Cite this article as: Lazina Hossain Neshe;  TESOL : Empirical study on child education development in China;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(9) : 01-13; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3384353

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 917    Total Downloaded: 168


  • 34 Wolf Rd Colonie (near TrustCo Bank), NY 12205, United States
  • Email : editor@twasp.info ; Phone : +1 (518) 458-8561/ +1 (917) 341-1480 (Hours: Mon - Fri, 0900h - 1730h )