North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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October 2020

  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Rakibul Hasan , Kazi Mohiuddin , Prof. Wei Liu
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 170-187, Oct 2020,
Abstract: Efficient port infrastructure and the strong maritime logistics sector have a significant contribution to economic growth. Coastal and domestic waterway shipping with the concept of port-led development is eco-friendly, energy-efficient, and minimizing domestic freight costs. Therefore, the river network and coastline of the developing countries keeping unutilized increasing the logistic cost and decrease the competitiveness compared to other developed countries. This study is qualitative research, and secondary data have been used. The data have been collected from different publications, journals, articles, related books, newspapers, annual reports of affiliated organizations etc. Collected data have been analyzed by strategic tools to find out the challenges and formulate the strategies for port-led development. In this work, several ports led development projects. Some port development models have been studied and tried to demonstrate how port-led development can show economic development in GDP growth. Some barriers to port-led development have been identified. Besides, sustainable port-led development in Bangladesh has been shown based on Shagarmala port-led development project. It has been found that draft limitation, hinterland connectivity, coastal community development, and industrial development are significant challenges for the port-led development of Chittagong Port. In this paper, long-term port-led development strategies and trade facilitation have been recommended to reduce the logistic cost for creating an internal and global competitive advantage compared to other exporting countries.

Cite this article as: Rakibul Hasan , Kazi Mohiuddin , Prof. Wei Liu;  Port led-development in Developing Countries for Effective and Efficient Maritime Transportation;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 170-187, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Summra Khalid, Wang Dan
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 161-169, Oct 2020,
Abstract: Empirical relationship between Human resource practices and performance of the organization has been tested in this research paper. Empirical evidence of positive association between organization performance and Human Resource Management (HRM) has been published however it is difficult to demonstrate a causal link. It has provided mix findings as some empirical research has tried to shed more light on these issues. A field survey using questionnaire was conducted to test the preposition. The main mass of our sample is consisting on public and private sector organization’s employees. Employees who are actively involved in working life had been included in convenient sampling method and these forms were handled to those employees. From Lahore region a total of 450 questionnaires, 174 were timely returned and replied and 140 were able to include in our analysis. For the purpose of hypothesis testing ANOVA single factor was applied to test the significance level between variables and further significance was tested on results of ANOVA by applying t-test statistics. ANOVA single factor shows that all variables are statistically significant with each other and t-test further verified that the significance is not present between performance, business strategy and performance appraisal values. All other variables are statistically significant with performance of the organizations.

Cite this article as: Summra Khalid, Wang Dan;  A study of Econometric linkage between SHRM practices and performance of the organization;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 161-169, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Chorpaka Sathienjarukarn , Prof. Yan Zhao
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 122-138, Oct 2020,
Abstract: easy and flexible to watch. Video-om-demand services are available in both paod and free formats which the membership paid service has grow tremendously in Thailand. Nevertheless, the increasing number of competitors in the market makes it difficult for viewers to pay for all platforms. It is impossible to predict the futre of Thailand’s media market. The researcher chose to study in the streaming service with a membership fee, which is currently favored to analyze this industry’s future. This research aims to study the factors influencing the decision to purchase online media services by studying the effects between relaxation, ad-free, individual viewing, exclusivity feeling, anti-piracy, and technology-engaged factors to the satisfaction of using service, including satisfaction with the decision to purchase streaming media services. Also, study the buffering issues affecting the relationship between satisfaction and purchase decision. The researcher used 385 sets of questionnaires to collect data from Thai online media members. The result shows that relaxation, technology engaged, exclusivity feeling, and anti-piracy factors affect the service’s satisfaction, and satisfaction is part of the service purchase decision. However, the buffering problem has reduced the purchasing decision.

Cite this article as: Chorpaka Sathienjarukarn , Prof. Yan Zhao;  The Future of Media in Thailand: Influencing Factors and Satisfaction Using Streaming Media Service With The Membership Fee;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 122-138, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Amani Abisai Lyanga, Ming-Kun Chen
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 154-160, Oct 2020,
Abstract: This study reports the findings on Understand the factors affect student’s academic performance in science subjects in public secondary schools in Tanzania, by drawing references from public secondary schools found at Dodoma Municipal in Tanzania. To achieve this end, the following specific objectives were formulated such as: To examine the availability of teaching and learning materials for science subjects in secondary schools, to identify the pass rate and drop rates in science subjects, to highlight the difficulties or challenges faced by teachers and students in learning science subjects in secondary schools. 30 respondents were selected and data were collected through interviews, observation and documentary review. The analysis of the data revealed that there is congestion of students in class, shortage of laboratories as well as chemicals for practical, lack of enough and quality text books. Furthermore analysis revealed that, teaching and learning of science subjects affected by students and teachers perception, shortage of qualified competent teachers in teaching science subjects. Following the findings researcher suggested that teaching and learning resources in science subjects like books, laboratory apparatus have to be increased to schools to enable students to interact effectively through discussion and other participatory strategies associated in order to improve performance in science subjects. In addition to that, the existence of many students in a single stream affect the teaching and learning process. The government under the ministry of education and vocational training, NGOs and other educational stake holders should have public awareness on the significance of studying science subjects for the current and future development of Tanzania. Those education players should put more emphasize on science subjects and the ministry of education should ensure that all public secondary schools have all resources for teaching and learning

Cite this article as: Amani Abisai Lyanga, Ming-Kun Chen;  Understand The Factors Affect Student’s Academic Performance in Science Subjects in Public Secondary Schools in Tanzania;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 154-160, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Mezgeb Manaye Gebru
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 109-121, Oct 2020,
Abstract: t As threats have matured and information has increased in value, attackers have increased their capabilities and expanded to broader intentions, developed more attack methods and methodologies, and are acting on more diverse motives. The issue is too serious when it comes to financial institutions due to their sensitivity to information security attacks. The general aim of this research was to explore the levels of information security awareness of employees in the banking sector in Ethiopia. A quantitative and qualitative research approach was used. Findings showed that the information security awareness level of Ethiopian private banking sector employees is unsatisfactory and needs improvement through continuous on-the-job training. In addition, the training provided on information security awareness for the employees of the private bank in Ethiopia needs improvement.

Cite this article as: Mezgeb Manaye Gebru;  Information Security Awareness of Employees in Ethiopian Banking Sector;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 109-121, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Ghulam Mustafa , Faraz Khan Mahar , Awais Khatri , Shamshad Ali , Asif Ali , Azhar Ali Ayaz Pirzado , Qiuran Jiang
Vol 3, Issue 10; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 139-153, Oct 2020,
Abstract: Many natural fibers present in nature, among all the natural fibers, cotton fiber has vital value, it is widely used because of certain desirable properties and is widely available throughout the world. Reactive dyeing of cotton produces wide range of bright colors and provides excellent color fastness because of covalent bonding between fiber polymers. For dark shades, it is essential to mercerize cotton fabric to increase dye-ability, improve luster but it has some disadvantages, mercerization needs specialized machine, high consumption of concentrated caustic soda during mercerization, need to neutralize the fabric after mercerization, use of salt during dyeing, which produces toxic effluent and have high TDS value and that is environmentally unfriendly. To overcome all these problems reactive cationic reagent is used for cotton applied through cationization process, which chemical modify cotton to produce positive dyeing sites of charges on the fabric in the place of existing hydroxyl sites that increases dye affinity, color yield, fixation percentage, produces hygroscopy, dimensional stability and increases fabric strength. For cationization, no need of specialized machine, neutralization and exhaust dyeing of cotton does not require salt for exhaustion. It produces less effluent and less toxicity in effluent which is environmentally friendly, all these advantages makes cationization process cheaper and superior thus cationization has great potential to be replaced with mercerization.

Cite this article as: Ghulam Mustafa , Faraz Khan Mahar , Awais Khatri , Shamshad Ali , Asif Ali , Azhar Ali Ayaz Pirzado , Qiuran Jiang;  Potential of reactive cationization of cotton over mercerization for dyeing characteristics;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 139-153, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Rana Saadat Bukhtiar
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 79-94, Oct 2020,
Abstract: Aging is a global issue which has impact over the world population. Aging is on rise in Pakistan as well since early 1990s due to the onslaught of demographic transition in the country. This situation has posed many problems not only for the senior citizens, but their relatives and families as well due to the varying socio-economic environment. Pakistan, a country in South Asia and in neighborhood of China, is the fifth most populous country in the world with an estimated population over 220 million people. Traditionally, senior citizens tend to live with their children as youngsters were socially responsible for the upkeep of the elders but shifts in age demographics, family structures and migration patterns may see the aged population being left behind. Modernization and urbanization have had a major impact on the life of elders in Pakistan and it’s not always a positive effect. Senior citizens demand and desire time with their children and grandchildren. The issues faced by elders in Pakistan is highly correlated with modernization and change in the socio-economic factors. In a poorly developed country like Pakistan, this responsibility has to be shouldered by the state due to changing cultural conditions and the deteriorating grip of religion. This facts and data used in this paper is based on the research results of previous research papers which are mentioned and cited in this paper. This research paper describes aging and elderly care in Pakistan in comparison with China along with the lessons that can be learnt from China as it is an aging society and the way China has developed long term care policy and services for its senior citizens. This paper concludes that the prospects of elderly care services in Pakistan depends on the commitment and ability of the government in meeting the challenges of insufficient funds for social services, inadequate and low-quality provision, and the lack of seriousness in making and implementing social policy for the betterment of senior citizens.

Cite this article as: Rana Saadat Bukhtiar;  Aging and Elderly Care Services in Developing Nations; Descriptive Analysis of Services Offered in China and Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 79-94, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Subarna Akter, Mohsin Khan, Dr. Md. Rashedul Islam Rana, Md. Jahid Hasan, Mahedi Hasan
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 95-108, Oct 2020,
Abstract: In spite of solid records of security and quality maternity care, maternity care in Country isn't addressing the requirements of country and far off ladies as confirmed by poor access and results. Rustic people group have encountered generous and progressing loss of maternity administrations for over 10 years. Therefore, country ladies need to leave their locale and encouraging groups of people to go to removed focuses to conceive an offspring. The loss of these basic wellbeing administrations has antagonistically influenced rustic ladies, families and networks. Workforce deficiencies, wellbeing and quality contemplations and cost contemplations are the three interrelated reasons which have prompted the loss of little rustic birthing administrations in Country. To improve maternity administrations in provincial networks, it is significant that ladies' requirements for the administrations are distinguished and cooked for however much as could be expected. The discoveries demonstrate a lot of neglected maternity needs of ladies in provincial Low and middle income country to be specific (I) access needs, (ii) wellbeing needs, (iii) requirements for little rustic birthing administrations, (iv) data and backing needs, and (v) requirements for quality administrations. The examination (vi)recommends that the absence of maternity administrations in the Low and middle income countryn provincial zones move hazard from the medical care framework to rustic families due to privileging of clinical model over a women's activist guessing or essential consideration approach. The examination gives significant suggestions for crossing over the holes between the ladies' needs and as of now accessible maternity administrations. Initially, antenatal, postnatal and uphold administrations ought to be given in the neighborhood networks through effort or visiting administrations. Besides, provincial medical clinics without maternity administrations ought to be appropriately prepared and arranged to manage surprising crisis labors to guarantee the wellbeing for ladies and infants. Fittingly prepared and gifted emergency vehicle administrations ought to be set up for every provincial emergency clinic. Also, further withdrawal of country birthing administrations ought to be tested and thought given to resuming shut provincial administrations. Moreover, ladies ought to be educated pretty much all choices furthermore, administrations accessible through the joint effort of wellbeing experts in nearby territories and the provincial clinic. At long last, youngster wellbeing administrations in country networks ought to offer quality types of assistance for ladies all through their pregnancy and postnatal period as a major aspect of coherence of care. In rundown, this investigation makes a commitment to the improvement of maternity care also, administrations in provincial Low and middle income country and therefore to improve access and results for country ladies and their families.

Cite this article as: Subarna Akter, Mohsin Khan, Dr. Md. Rashedul Islam Rana, Md. Jahid Hasan, Mahedi Hasan;  Maternity Health Care in Low-Income and Middle-Income Countries;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 95-108, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Dr. Mahboob Ullah
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 61-78, Oct 2020,
Abstract: Micro finance is used to support individual and small businesses across the globe. This research is conducted to investigate the impact of micro finance on women empowerment (participation rate, mobility, freedom of expression of thoughts, and decision making approach towards flexible life) and social development (social status and living standards) in Afghanistan. For accomplishment of research objective, data was collected from 110 respondents (home based and non-home based individual/businesswomen) in Jalalabad, Laghman, Kunar, Kama, Khogyani, and Kot, Afghanistan through structured open and closed ended questionnaire. The hypotheses were tested by deploying multiple linear regression model. Data was analyzed through SPSS version 22. Data reliability was checked through Cronbach’s Alpha test. The outcomes indicated that micro financing have positive impact on women empowerment and social development. The outcomes documented that micro financing is a significant tool that maximize women empowerment in all dimensions. Furthermore, micro financing enhance social development of women. Micro finance is a significant element of financial institution that instill women confidence in decision making: both in domestic activities and in business & social activities that further leads to economic contributions in support of families which is considered as a step towards prosperity. This research is useful for the government and policy makers of Afghanistan as it documents the importance of micro financing in empowering women and social development.

Cite this article as: Dr. Mahboob Ullah;  Women Empowerment and Social Development in Afghanistan through Micro Finance;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 61-78, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Afsana Sharmin, Kazi Md Hasanul Hoque
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 46-60, 2020,
Abstract: This main objective of this project was to produce filament yarn using waste plastic bottles, which are usually thrown away every day in everywhere of the world. For this purpose a fully customized prototype spinneret was built. This machine was capable to melt plastics chips by electric heating system and extrude the PET plastic bottle chips into plastic strings or filament yarns. It was possible to extrude filament of moderate quality. The filament yarns were also dyed using disperses dye. The quality of dyed yarn such as dye ability, color fastness to wash, rubbing, light and perspiration was found excellent. Further tests were carried out to determine other characteristics such as count, strength, elasticity, fabrication ability of the filament yarn. Such a step will also reduce the environmental pollution Bangladesh as well as in Worldwide.

Cite this article as: Afsana Sharmin, Kazi Md Hasanul Hoque;  Preparation of Melt spun Textile Filament from Waste Plastic Bottle And Its Characterization;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 46-60, 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Uthpala Ekanayake, Wasantha Daundasekara, Pantalian Perera
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 28-45, Oct 2020,
Abstract: The minimum spanning tree problem consists of finding a minimum cost spanning tree in an undirected graph in various types of networks. Minimum weight spanning tree visits all vertices that are in the similar associated part as the beginning node. In this investigation, we examine the various techniques for solving a Generalized Minimum Weight Spanning Tree Problem. Also, we present the An Approach for Solving Minimum Spanning Tree Problem and Transportation Problem Using Modified Ant Colony Algorithm. Different methodologies have been made in the composition for dealing with transportation on finding an initial basic feasible solution and the rest to find the optimal solution to the TP. Northwest, Least Cost, and Vogel’s Approximation techniques are created to find an initial basic feasible solution whereas the Modified Distribution (MODI) Method and Stepping Stone Method is designed to find an optimal solution to the TP. In this examination, we propose a heuristic method known as the Modified Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm, which is based on Ant Colony Algorithm (ACA) procedure has demonstrated to provide near-optimal solutions to a reasonable degree of satisfaction to large scale TPs. In this novel approach, the degree of satisfaction of the optimal solution has been improved by modifying ACA with the incorporation of the transition Rule and Pheromone Update Rule. The algorithmic approach proposed by this study is less complicated compared to the wellknown meta-heuristic algorithms in the literature. In the end, we represent the conclusion we illustrate the proposed method using a case to study.

Cite this article as: Uthpala Ekanayake, Wasantha Daundasekara, Pantalian Perera;  An Approach for Solving Minimum Spanning Tree Problem and Transportation Problem Using Modified Ant Colony Algorithm;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 28-45, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Félicien Majoro , Umaru Garba Wali , Omar Munyaneza , François-Xavier Naramabuye and Concilie Mukamwambali
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 13-27, Oct 2020,
Abstract: Abstract: Soil erosion is one of the major environmental issues causing the loss of topsoil and fertility in agricultural land. Western part of Rwanda including Sebeya catchment has high susceptibility to erosion leading to huge amounts of soil loss and river sedimentation. The present study held to estimate the actual soil loss from Sebeya catchment and its 8 sub-catchments. ArcGIS software was used to delineate the catchment and its sub-catchments and for mapping all USLE factors. By integrating all maps of USLE factors in GIS, the average soil loss from the whole catchment area was estimated to 130.724 t/ha/yr. Kanzenze sub-catchment was found to be the 1st sub-catchment alarming the intervention with a soil loss of 243.868 t/ha/yr while Bitenga subcatchment appears at the last rank with a soil loss of 86.922 t/ha/yr for this prioritization in implementing soil erosion control measures. Therefore, the unevenly spatial distribution of soil erosion rates in this study should help the agricultural managers to improve their strategy in planning and implementing the soil erosion control measures in Sebeya catchment.

Cite this article as: Félicien Majoro , Umaru Garba Wali , Omar Munyaneza , François-Xavier Naramabuye and Concilie Mukamwambali;  Estimation of Soil Loss and Ranking Priority in Implementing Soil Erosion Control Measures in Sebeya Catchment, Rwanda;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 13-27, Oct 2020,

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 10
Bidhan Shrestha , Anupama Shrestha
Vol 3, Issue 10 ; October 2020
North American Academic Research, 3(10) 01-12, Oct 2020,
Abstract: We present a system to utilize a UAV (automated aeronautical vehicle) to perform photogrammetric overviews and itemized geographical planning in mountain zones. This work is uniquely identified with the given contextual investigation the mean to acknowledge geomorphological guides from UAVs, since they can house various kinds of sensors and secure information more quickly and economically than customary topographical overviews legitimately got with field perceptions. This work clarifies how UAVs can acquire computerized territory models, orthophotos and 3D models so as to make incline and angle maps for land purposes. By incorporating information from UAVs with geographical reviews made on the field, topographical guides can be created where a large number of the land components are introduced. This paper presents the coordination of geomatics and topographical procedures. Beginning from UAV slant map and orthophotos, another land map was made in a quicker and more definite manner contrasted with customary geographical review on the ground. The utilization of this strategy respects a segment of the Nepal, framed by icy masses and profound situated gravitational slant misshapenings.

Cite this article as: Bidhan Shrestha , Anupama Shrestha;  Drone Survey in the Mountainous Region of Nepal;  North American Academic Research, 3(10) 01-12, Oct 2020,

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