North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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March 2020


  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Muhizi Musa, Hafiz Muhammad Azeem Akhtar, Jinling Li
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 590-603: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3738766
Abstract: A Material handling system having three major components, which are a rail, a delta robot and an end-effector is presented in this paper. The single DOF rail is designed to move the delta robot in one direction, the delta robot is used as the main manipulator and the end-effector is designed with 3-DOF to adhere capabilities of a serial robot to the parallel robot. Main research work presented in this paper is modelling and simulation of the 3-DOF end-effector. The end-effector is modelled using SOLIDWORKS and then utilized to carry out kinematic and kinetic analyses in MATLAB. Kinematic analysis is carried out to analyze the motion capability of the end-effector, whereas the dynamic analysis is done for motor selection which determines forces and torques at each joint. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for each part of the end-effector is carried out using ANSYS. The proposed material handling system is able to minimize disadvantages of utilizing a delta robot by attachment of the presented end-effector to the delta robot.

Cite this article as: Muhizi Musa, Hafiz Muhammad Azeem Akhtar, Jinling Li;  Modelling and Simulation of a 3-DOF End-effector for a Material Handling System with a Delta Robot;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 590-603: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3738766

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Sakurul Islam, Jiazhen Li, MD, Yan Zhang, MD, Xin-Chang Lu, MD, Yi Zhang, MD, Sripur Manandhar, Raiana Jannat Ahsan
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 573-589: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3738757
Abstract: Introduction: Giant cell tumors exhibit a benign histological picture which has a high potential to show local aggressiveness and has the potency of incidental transformation into sarcoma. Intensive intralesional curettage followed by bone graft or bone cement filling is considered to be the standard method of treatment. We evaluated the outcome of intralesional curettage using bone graft or bone cement by observing complication free survival, recurrence, postoperative complications like stiffness, osteoarthritis, fracture during the follow up visits of the patients.Method: In the First affiliated hospital of Zhengzhou University total 105 patients having giant cell tumour of long bone were treated from January 2013 to December 2017. Among them we selected 78 patients who did not have a pathological fracture at the time of diagnosis, no metastasis and came for a post operative scheduled follow up. The patients were divided into 2 groups: Group A who had curettage with bone cement filling and Group B who had curettage with bone graft.Result: 39 patients were treated with intralesional curettage followed by bone cement filling and 39 patients were treated with intralesional curettage followed by bone graft. Bone cement has been considered to have better complication free survival than bone graft (P=0.001). 15 patients treated with bone cement filling developed their complications like local recurrence, fracture, stiffness of joint, osteoarthritis at a mean time of 23.4 months which is significantly higher (with a P=0.02) than 25 patients treated with bone graft who developed complication at a mean time of 12.5 months. The mean time of developing of local recurrence in patients who underwent bone curettage with bone cement filling is 25.2 months whereas in patients with bone graft the mean time for local recurrence is 11.4 months is significantly different (P=0.013). Internal fixation along with filling material gives a better prognosis than using the filling material alone (P=0.029).Conclusion: We evaluated that intralesional curettage following bone cement filling has lower recurrence rate and less complications compared to bone graft substitute. The possibility of development of complication North American Academic Research , Volume 3, Issue 03; March, 2020; 3(03) 573-589 ©TWASP, USA574 becomes less obvious if internal fixator is used along with bone cement. This can be used for prompt and longer duration of complication free survival.

Cite this article as: Sakurul Islam, Jiazhen Li, MD, Yan Zhang, MD, Xin-Chang Lu, MD, Yi Zhang, MD, Sripur Manandhar, Raiana Jannat Ahsan;  Evaluating the outcome of treatment using bone cement or bone graft in Giant Cell Tumor of Bone;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 573-589: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3738757

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Solank Shrestha, Ling Hu, Yunlu Zhang
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 511-540: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3728274
Abstract: Development should take into account the needs of the present generation as well as the environment, economic, social and culture. The onslaught of globalization and technology impacts the development of a developing country, resulting in changes in culture, traditions and social life. The technology, materials and skills used to build the traditional courtyard house in the olden times are primitive, simple and locally available, but include a long history of settlement, culture, tradition and social life. Beijing and Kathmandu are the capital cities of China and Nepal, where rapid industrialization and urbanization change the urban fabric and environment in a short time. The traditional built environment that is a symbol of ancient history, culture and social life is being distracted by the onslaught of globalization. An ancient structure that exhibits potential for a country’s growth should be managed and developed on a larger scale. The purpose of this paper is to focus on traditional houses that protect the sociocultural, heritage, and traditions from ancient times. A model has been developed for the sustainable development of the traditional courtyard house. It provides basic knowledge for sustainable development that will be beneficial to other contemporary houses of similar nature.

Cite this article as: Solank Shrestha, Ling Hu, Yunlu Zhang;  Development and Sustainability: Traditional Courtyard House of China and Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 511-540: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3728274

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Saika Shahadat , Muhammad Ihsan- Ul- Kabir
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 475-509: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3728269
Abstract: This study attempted to find out the severity/degree of discrimination against women in mid-level positions at their workplace, especially in an urban setting of Bangladesh and existence of policy gap in the institutional framework, if any and then tried to provide some policy prescriptions to overcome the existing adverse environment faced by women at the workplace. This research was conducted in 2019 and used a qualitative approach using both secondary data and primary data collected through a semi-structured questionnaire with twelve female officials, working at mid-level positions, from three public institutions, e.g. civil service (CS), education sector (ES), and banking sector (BS). To have an in-depth knowledge of discrimination, secondary data sources including books, government reports, and journal articles were reviewed. It was found that, society assesses women as inferior to men and considers women to give birth and manage household services only, from the perspective of Bangladesh. These devaluations of women decrease their productivity and create an unwillingness for their works. Discrimination at the workplace links the dissatisfaction in the family. It increases absenteeism in the office and creates mistrust among colleagues. The traditional social system passing through hundred years causes different treatments for males and females. Lack of quality education and traditional mindset are another reason behind. Mental dissatisfaction also increases working errors and dropouts and reduces productivity. This research argues for a few considerations to eliminate discrimination including creating much awareness, adopting gender sensitization programs, ensuring enough women in management positions, increasing gender sensitivity, setting up at least one day-care center and personal space for women in all the government institutions, equitable share of the division of labor, ensuring quality education at all levels, and regular orientation on institutional policies and procedures between staffs.

Cite this article as: Saika Shahadat , Muhammad Ihsan- Ul- Kabir;  Discrimination against Women in Mid-Level Position in Workplaces: A Case Study of the Public Institutions in Dhaka City;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 475-509: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3728269

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Muhammad Hafeez, Sakhawat Shah , Xiaowei Li , Zhijun Zhang , Jun Huang , Likun Wang , Asim Gulzar , Ehsan Ali , Bahar Ali , Yaobin Lu
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 461-474: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3728264
Abstract: Pesticides are widely used in agriculture mainly to increase crop yields cater to huge supply of food products for increasing world population as well as to protect crops from pests and control insect-borne diseases. Increased use of pesticides (especially organochlorine pesticides) results in contamination of the environment and the excess accumulation of pesticide residues in food products and severe health impact, which has always been a matter of serious concern. Pesticide residues in food and crops are directly related to the irrational application of pesticides to the growing crops. Accumulated organochlorine pesticide residues in food products have been associated with a broad variety of human health hazards, ranging from short-term effects to longterm toxic effects. The preventive measures for pesticide residues in the developing countries are limited due to a shortage of funds and lack of defined government regulations. The impact of pesticide residues can be minimized by taking certain measures such as the rational use of pesticides, promoting organic farming, exploit natural and bio pesticides, and proper implementation and amendment of pesticide-related laws. The present article has been planned to review various aspects of organochlorine pesticide residues including their accumulation in air, soil, water and food products, impact on human health, and the preventive measures to counter their toxic effects.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Hafeez, Sakhawat Shah , Xiaowei Li , Zhijun Zhang , Jun Huang , Likun Wang , Asim Gulzar , Ehsan Ali , Bahar Ali , Yaobin Lu;  Extensive use of organochlorine pesticides in agriculture: environmental and health concerns: A review;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 461-474: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3728264

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Abdul Karim Miya , Mehraj Ansari , Anil Dev Pant , Ganesh Rai , Kul Raj Rai, Shiba Kumar Rai
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 448-460: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3725002
Abstract: Hemodialysis (HD) patients are more susceptible to urinary tract infection (UTI) and UTIs are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. This study was conducted to find out the prevalence of UTI and multidrug-resistant (MDR) patterns of isolates among HD patients. A cross-sectional study was carried out from February 2018 to August 2018 at the National Kidney Center (NKC), Banasthali, Kathmandu. A total of 200 (108 male and 98 female) mid-stream urine samples were collected from patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis. Of them, 26% of samples showed significant bacteriuria. 22.2% and 30.4% of samples showed significant bacteriuria among males and females, respectively (p=0.19). Among the age-group, bacteriuria was ranked top at the age group >70 years (35.3.8%) followed by 51- 70 years (34.1%) (p=0.046). Nine different bacteria were isolated. Among them, the most predominant organism was Esch. coli (32.7%) followed by Staph. aureus (26.9%), Staph. saprophyticus (13.5%) and others. For the Gram-negative isolates, Imipenem (96.8%) was found to be the most effective drug followed by Amikacin (83.9%) and Cefepime (64.5%). For Grampositive isolates, Cefepime (76.1%) was found to be the most effective drug. The organisms showed 71.4% resistance to Cotrimoxazole and 57.1% resistance to Amoxicillin, Azithromycin, and Nitrofurantoin. The overall prevalence of MDR was found to be 57.7% in HD patients. Amikacin and Imipenem were found to be the drug of choice to treat UTI in HD patients. This study will be beneficial for making treatment policy and reducing the risk of UTI in HD patients.

Cite this article as: Abdul Karim Miya , Mehraj Ansari , Anil Dev Pant , Ganesh Rai , Kul Raj Rai, Shiba Kumar Rai;  Bacteriological profile and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of uropathogens in hemodialysis patients attending tertiary care hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 448-460: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3725002

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Shahbaz Bin Khalid , Yu-Xiu Zhang , Xin Jin , Li-Long Yan , Jun-Cheng Hu , Gulfam Hussain , Li-Dong Zhu
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 431-447: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3724994
Abstract: The Mozhugongka garnet amphibolites exhibit mineral assemblage of garnet, amphibole, albite, quartz, phengite, epidote, rutile, and chlorite. Based on the metamorphic textures, two metamorphic stages (peak metamorphism: M2; retrograde metamorphism: M3) can be observed: M2: Grt + Hbl + Pl + Qz, M3: Hbl + Pl + Qz. Metamorphic P-T calculations were conducted by GHPQ and HPQ geothermobarometers for two garnet amphibolite samples. The results for M2 and M3 are ~15-16 kbar/550-580 °C and ~6-9 kbar/400-490 °C, respectively. Mozhugongka garnet amphibolites can be geochemically and geochronologically compared with the Bailang eclogites, as both Bailang eclogites and Mozhugongka amphibolites possess OIB affinity and share similar exhumation path. Based on geochemical and retrograde metamorphic similarities, Mozhugongka garnet amphibolites may have originated from eclogites, which also exhumed during Triassic (219±1.2 Ma) along with Pangna blueschist, Jilang, Songduo and Bailang eclogites. Mozhugongka garnet amphibolites possibly mark the westward extension of Songduo metamorphic complex along with Pangna blueschist.

Cite this article as: Shahbaz Bin Khalid , Yu-Xiu Zhang , Xin Jin , Li-Long Yan , Jun-Cheng Hu , Gulfam Hussain , Li-Dong Zhu;  Metamorphic evaluation and tectonic implications of Mozhugongka garnet amphibolites, Lhasa terrane, Tibet;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 431-447: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3724994

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Muhammad Kashif Zaman,Khawar Saeed , Aftab Yaseen , Muhammad Uzair
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 404-417: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3723934
Abstract: B-glucuronidase is a common enzyme which cleaves in B linkage and converts aglycone to a glucuronic acid. Studies have been made on this enzyme and a lot of work has been reported about specific inhibition of B-glucuronidase enzyme and insecticidal activity while to the best of our knowledge current work was conducted to check the B- Glucuronidase enzyme inhibition and insecticidal activity of a plant Echinops Echinatus for the first time. Methanol and DCM extracts of Echinops Echinatus showed weak insecticidal activity while moderate results of B-Glucuronidase enzyme Inhibition were observed.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Kashif Zaman,Khawar Saeed , Aftab Yaseen , Muhammad Uzair;  Studies on B- Glucuronidase enzyme inhibition and insecticidal activity from Echinops Echinatus;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 404-417: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3723934

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Atta-Ur-Rehman , Wang Shi Ying , Imran Ali , Barun Kumar , Umar Bashir
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 418-430 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3723946
Abstract: Various advantages derive from applying 5-axis machines instead of using 3-axis machines. Main advantage is high flexibility in tool coordination in space and reduction of assembling time for complicated wok piece, multiple barricade occurs during set-up process for the further procedures by using only 3-axis machining. Eliminating the extra fixture time maximum parts can be assembled in single or two set-ups by using 5-axis machining. Integral impeller is absolute example that can be precisely designed and manufactured with high degree of flexibility in tool orientation by using CAD/CAM systems. Impellers are widely use in multiple industries such as aerospace, automobiles and biomedical industries and ship building industries. large amount of methods are proposed through researchers for impeller manufacturing. Most manufacturer use Master CAM, CATIA, UG NX, VERICUT, SolidWorks, Power mill for manufacturing of impellers. To overcome the issue of time consumption this paper explains useful strategies of machining impeller by integrating depth cut distance, change in feed rate and tool diameter by using 3 and 5-axis machining strategy simultaneously. Ball end rough milling and finishing test are conducted on aluminum workpiece. As production coast is directly linked with machining time, which is directly related with feed rate, and machining tool and machining method. This paper also describes validation analysis and brief comparison of time lag with the simulation. 3-axis machining strategy undermine because of its high ability of rigidity as compared to full five axis. Through this study, overall machining time can be reduced to 53.9 percent respectively and the cutting force model for 5axis ball end cutting force prediction is also illustrated with a carbide cutting tool.

Cite this article as: Atta-Ur-Rehman , Wang Shi Ying , Imran Ali , Barun Kumar , Umar Bashir;  NC Machining Simulation for Design and Manufacturing of Integral Impeller Based on UG NX 12.0;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 418-430 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3723946

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Jean Pierre Mugiraneza, Ildephonse Habinshuti, Emmanuel Nsanzumukiza
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 371-403: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3722639
Abstract: This paper compares and shows how much more developing countries are more facing public health challenges than developed countries. It presents contributions of the World Health Organization to Public health threats. We also discuss public health challenges that are still rising in both developed and developing countries. Furthermore, this article sheds light on some signs of progress that have been made in public health worldwide by individual countries and/or international organizations. In this review, some solutions and recommendations were suggested to achieve the targeted goals of Healthy people internationally.

Cite this article as: Jean Pierre Mugiraneza, Ildephonse Habinshuti, Emmanuel Nsanzumukiza;  Public Health Challenges in both Developing and Developed Countries: A review;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 371-403: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3722639

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Abdel Hamid Mbouombouo Mboungam, Javid Asif , Nyamweya Willy Oenga, Naqvi Syed Majaf Hasan, Agboifo Edmond Omenonye
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 351-370: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3722619
Abstract: This work proposes the development of a control system for an autonomous underwater vehicle dedicated to the observation of the oceans. The vehicle, a hybrid between Autonomous Underwater Vehicles and Autonomous Surface Vehicles, that moves on the surface of the sea and makes vertical immersions to obtain profiles of a water column, according to a pre-established plan. The displacement of the vehicle on the surface allows the navigation through GPS and telemetry communication by radio-modem. This control system has been divided into navigation, propulsion, safety and data acquisition subsystems.

Cite this article as: Abdel Hamid Mbouombouo Mboungam, Javid Asif , Nyamweya Willy Oenga, Naqvi Syed Majaf Hasan, Agboifo Edmond Omenonye;  DEVELOPMENT OF CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SMALL AUTONOMOUS UNDERWATER VEHICLE;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 351-370: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3722619

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Maria Steven Mallya , Marcellia Susan
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 311-326: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3712451
Abstract: In today’s marketing sphere, social media uprising has transformed the communication setting as well as impacted the marketing communication considerably thus the study sought to assess the impact of Facebook advertising and e-WOM on women’s purchasing decision process towards cosmetics. This research is a quantitative research associated with multiple regression analysis technique. The respondents of this research are women in Dar es salaam City, Tanzania. This research found that Facebook advertising have an impact on consumer purchase decision process towards cosmetics products as well as e-WOM have significant influence on consumers’ purchase decision process towards cosmetics products. Based on the multiple regression model, the coefficient regression value for e-WOM is the biggest with a value 0.939 or 93.9% this demonstrates that e-WOM has a dominant impact on purchase decision process. The study suggests that the cosmetic suppliers need to invest greatly in their Facebook advertising strategy as well as working on the customers feedbacks.

Cite this article as: Maria Steven Mallya , Marcellia Susan;  The impact of Facebook Advertising and Electronic Word-Of Mouth (e-WOM) on Women’s purchasing decision process towards cosmetics in Dar es salaam, Tanzania.;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 311-326: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3712451

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Abdul Qudos Karimi, Wali Khan Monib, Nazifullah Nijat
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 289-310: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3712438
Abstract: : The aim of this study is to evaluate the EFL curriculum of public secondary schools of Afghanistan employing CIPP evaluation model. The model has four dimensions including context, input, process and product. Utilizing an adopted questionnaire, 38 schools were selected through cluster sampling where 73 EFL teachers were involved as the participants of the study. The total items of the instrument pertaining to respondent opinions were 46: context 10; input 6; process 8 and product 22 (Hakan & Seval, 2011). Data were transferred and analyzed through SPSS version 24 to find out descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) of the participants’ responses. The main findings of the study show that most of the teachers are agree to some extent (between partly agree and agree) with the four components of the in-use curriculum. Thus, it is recommended to reform and improve the curriculum.

Cite this article as: Abdul Qudos Karimi, Wali Khan Monib, Nazifullah Nijat;  An Evaluation of Secondary School EFL Curriculum in Afghanistan: A CIPP Model Approach;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 289-310: : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3712438

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Samiullah Khan , DOU Yinke , Mohammad Nazami , Syed Arslan Bukhari , Imran Ali , Usman Ali
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 245-256: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711115
Abstract: Although legged robots are commonly used compared with other kind of robots, they are convenient to move any terrain. Specially, when the surface is rough and uneven. Leg robots have advantages over robot with wheel because they are ideal for circumstances of this kind. In order to implement legged robots, many motors normally need to move each joint in leg robot. The construction cost, motion of the robot and its demand for power supply and weight increased by additional motors. This research is focused on design a quadruped robot based on body structure of four legs mammals and mechanism layout can maximize the motion range of robot feet in the horizontal plane. Its control system based on STM32F103VET6, using the timers of STM32F103VET6 to produce 12-channel PWM wave to control robot’s legs. The experiments show that joints motion control of 12 degree-freedom is stable, the smarter and smaller control system can control complex movement gait precisely and the robot can achieve ground motion.

Cite this article as: Samiullah Khan , DOU Yinke , Mohammad Nazami , Syed Arslan Bukhari , Imran Ali , Usman Ali;  Quadruped Robot Control System Based on STM32 Single Chip Microcomputer;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 245-256: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711115

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Elza Harja
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 264-288: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711157
Abstract: With climate change being the leading problem of our generation, green bonds allow companies to become more environmentally responsible and sustainable; however, there is not enough information on green bond profitability. Research has shown contradictory results, but most studies conclude that green bonds produce lower yields. This research aims to help fill the literature gap by comparing the international and Chinese market, and the performance of green bonds against conventional bonds denominated in euro currency. The analysis was carried out on two data samples between 2013 and 2019, applying the Matching method and an extended Fama-French model. Compared to other studies, this research uses the Merton model to calculate the default factor for the Fama-French regressions. The results indicate that conventional bonds outperform green bonds. The research contributes by demonstrating that the default factor calculated with the Merton model is a better fit than the original default premium factor used in the Fama-French regressions.

Cite this article as: Elza Harja;  Chinese and International Green Bond Market: a Comparative Analysis of the Financial Performance Between Green Bonds and Conventional Bonds;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 264-288: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711157

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Mohammad Rkibul Hassan, Miao Zhai
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 204-229: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708532
Abstract: The increase use of the stainless steel in engineering, especially in some industrial architecture and ocean structure concrete filled double tubular column occurred which use stainless steel tube replaced the outer steel tube in CFDST. There has some research of CFDST on the static load, dynamic load, durability and construction loads, the study of CFDST with external stainless tube is still in its infancy. In this paper, using of ABAQUS establish finite element analysis model. In the analysis model, the all materials mechanic behavior and contact method have been defined. The comparison between the ABAQUS calculating results and the test results has showed their consistency. The proved model and orthogonal method, the parameter analysis has been carried out. To the stainless steel-concrete-steel tubular columns, the analysis parameters include nominal steel ratio, hollow ratio, concrete cube strength and the ratio of diameter of inner steel tube to thickness. Based on the parameter analysis, the calculating method for the ultimate bearing capacity of stainless - steel concrete which have been compared.

Cite this article as: Mohammad Rkibul Hassan, Miao Zhai;  Finite Element Analysis Behavior of Concrete Filled Double Skin Tubular Short Columns with External Stainless Steel Tubes Under Axial Compression;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 204-229: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708532

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Kader Moahammad Abdul, Hauque Md Imdadul, Sarkar Md Sajib
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 257-263 : : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711124
Abstract: CoronaVirus (COVID-19) won’t be discussed once again because it has gained worldwide attention now. Some countries have decided to call it ‘China Virus’ as well. The topic of discussion here is DoD which implies Development over Disaster in China. In this article the impact of some precautionary measures and steps are shown and some positive points with higher possibilities in the sustainable development of China will be discussed. The goal of this article is to show some possibilities which may impact the vast majority of development in China. Socioeconomic Development has been impacted during this disaster period. Determining the production possibility and possible movement in industrial and socio-economic development is a key factor to focus on at the moment.

Cite this article as: Kader Moahammad Abdul, Hauque Md Imdadul, Sarkar Md Sajib;  Impact of Coronavirus & Development (DoD) in China;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 257-263 : : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3711124

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Ishimwe Steven Papy, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Guo-Wei Le, Md. Serajul Islam
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 156-187 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708527
Abstract: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is described as exposition of multiplex liver metabolic disturbance interconnected with obesity. NAFLD is depicted by steatosis, excessive accumulation of fat in liver. This take place the time availability of fatty acid from plasma and de novo synthesis surpass liver fatty acid deposition, due to triglycerides export and oxidation. Hepatic steatosis can therefore be understood as biochemical outcome of inconsistency between interfused mechanisms of lipid biotransformation. This condition is allied to a range of various modifications in lipoproteins, fatty acids, and glucose metabolism that covers all organism's tissues. These metabolic disfunctions are believed to be the origin of possibility for diverse cardiometabolic risk agents related to NAFLD, like dyslipidemia, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and insulin resistance. And these disorders are hallmarks that worsen NAFLD complications, so far participating in development of simple steatosis up to advanced stages of NAFLD. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, participates as known inducer of inflammation that exacerbate this disease. Given the sharp growing prevalence and persistence of NAFLD, and its complexity that provoke or involve additional metabolic syndrome diseases, this current review discusses various mechanisms through which NAFLD develops itself and interaction with other associated hallmarks.

Cite this article as: Ishimwe Steven Papy, Xiang-Rong Cheng, Guo-Wei Le, Md. Serajul Islam;  Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and its Interplay with Various Metabolic Disorders;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 156-187 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708527

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Prof Xin Li, Roy Ntsinu Mbifi, Agboifo .O. Edmond, Obuoson Destiny Melody
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 187-203: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708530
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to study the impact of employees’ training and development on organizational performance. It was inspired by the fact that some organizations do not seem to care about improving the capacity of their worker but instead frown at and punish any weaknesses portray by the workers. To tackle the research problem, the researcher had as major objective to find out: whether National Financial Credit has training and development programs conducted for all employees; possible hurdles in the implementation of such programs and the practical effects training and development has on the performance at work. The researcher also emphasized on the various training methods designed and its implementation around the world during the training and development programs. Using the National Financial Credit, Kumba branch, the researcher got information from 300 respondents, through questionnaires, interviews and personal observation. The research also reveals that training and development is a necessity in every companies particularly for the unskilled or the less experience employees. Generally, employees’ work contribution was greatly improved due to the training methods and tools used by the company. Thus, it led to a positive impact on employee’ performance and an improvement in their skills and job efficiency.

Cite this article as: Prof Xin Li, Roy Ntsinu Mbifi, Agboifo .O. Edmond, Obuoson Destiny Melody;  The Impact of Training and Development On Organizational Performance: The Case of National Financial Credit Bank Bamenda, Cameroon;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 187-203: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708530

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Taslima Jahan, Md. Sadiqur Rahman, Syed Md. Mizanur Rahman
3, Issue 3; March-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) :230-244 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708534
Abstract: To know about the phenotypic diversity of 42 accessions of amaranth (Amaranthus spp), an experiment was designed in the experimental field of Plant Genetic Resources Centre of BARI, Gazipur during 2016-17. The germplasm were classified on the basis of their use. Among them, 6 gerrmplasm were identified as leaf amaranth and the rest 36 were stem amaranth. Amaranth were also classified as hard (14.29%), medium (4.76%) and soft (80.95%) on the basis of fiber. Qualitative variation was found in branching index, stem and leaf pubescence, leaf shape, leaf margin, terminal inflorescence shape, terminal inflorescence attitude and inflorescence density index. Different color variations were exhibited in stem (green-23.81% and pink or purple-76.19%), leaf pigmentation (entire lamina purple-7.14%, margin and vein pigmented-38.10%, normal green-26.19%, more green shade on purple leaf-9.52%, more purple shade on green leaf-16.67% and light green colour-2.38%), petiole (green- 38.10%, purple- 50.0% and dark purple-11.90%), inflorescence (green-76.19%, purple-19.05% and dark purple-4.76%) and seed (brown- 4.76% and black- 95.24%) colour. The maximum co-efficient of variation was obtained from the length of top lateral branches (34.57%) followed by their lateral branches length (33.14%) and the terminal inflorescence lateral length (32%). The 1000 seed weight of the collected germplasm varied within 2.45 to 4.5g.

Cite this article as: Taslima Jahan, Md. Sadiqur Rahman, Syed Md. Mizanur Rahman;  Morphological characterization of Amaranth germplasm;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) :230-244 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3708534

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Mustafa Berkan Sonmez, Prof. Cheng Ming
3, Issue 3; March-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 55-101 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3701963
Abstract: Blockchain is fairly new technology and it quickly became a very trendy topic among many different parties from governments to large enterprises. As President Xi also emphasized by saying “China Should ‘Seize Opportunity’ to Adopt Blockchain” we can see the importance of this technology for all the nations. We first heard about it with Bitcoin digital currency, however blockchain’s applications are way wider than just digital currency. At the current date there are numerous application attempts from financial industries, to insurance companies all the way to international trade. While many different groups are trying to use this technology to tackle different problems, international trade applications stand in the front line, current outdated and paper heavy state of international trade along with rapidly speeding up globalization creates a great need for an update on current international trade model. As the share in the global trade is the one of the biggest factors for countries who would like to stay in global race, many countries are looking for different applications to gain an advantage. More aggressive, less stable and easy to adept nature of emerging countries makes them more suitable for implementing new type of technologies and Turkey is one of those emerging countries who would like to catch up with developed countries in global trade race. Turkey believes key to excel and increase the share of Turkey in world trade is strongly related to performance of Micro, Small and Medium enterprises within Turkey. (SME Action Plan, 2015- 2018) Because of still under development nature of Turkish trade and finance ecosystem Turkish MSMEs face more significant difficulties comparing to developed nations. Aligned with Turkey’s action plans with this research paper, we will first try to understand the current situation and problems of Turkish MSMEs then find out in which areas can blockchain technology improve. After these two understandings we will craft and test the different hypothesizes around how and where can blockchain technology can help Turkish MSMEs to improve their contribution in international trade. Later using induction method, we will try come up with suggestions for other developing countries.

Cite this article as: Mustafa Berkan Sonmez, Prof. Cheng Ming;  Effects and Potential Repercussions of Blockchain Implementation on International Trade for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises in Turkey;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 55-101 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3701963

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Razafimanjary Maminiaina Aimee , Marcellia Susan
3, Issue 3; March-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 102-118 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3702049
Abstract: Nowadays, purchasing online has becoming a full part of our daily life and this is due to the development of the many technologies. Indonesia is actually the sixth country behind China on the first place, United States of America on the second place, Japan on the third place, followed by United Kingdom, and Germany; which use the most e-commerce. The title of this study is “The effect of Lazada e-service quality and e-recovery service quality on customer satisfaction” so its purpose is to analyse one by one the e-service quality, e-recovery service quality, and customer satisfaction, but especially to analyse the individual effect e-service quality and e-recovery service quality on customers’ satisfaction; and also the simultaneous effect of e-service quality and erecovery service quality on customer satisfaction. The data for this study is gotten form a questionnaire which will be asked with 124 respondents and SPSS and multiple linear regression are used in order to achieve the analysis. The result shows that all items for each variables are valid and reliable; the normality test and heteroscedasticity test are good; F test shows that there is a simultaneous effect of e-service quality and e-recovery service quality on customer satisfaction; t test shows that there is an individual effect of e-service quality and e-recovery service quality on customer satisfaction; analysis of the coefficient of the determination shows that e-service quality and e-recovery service quality has 58,5% effect on customer satisfaction; the analysis of multiple linear regression.

Cite this article as: Razafimanjary Maminiaina Aimee , Marcellia Susan;  The effect of Lazada e-service quality and e-recovery service quality on customer satisfaction;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 102-118 : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3702049

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Islam Mohammad Saiful, MD Fazle Rabbi, Prof. Zhang Jiabo
3, Issue 3; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 136-155; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3706397
Abstract: Technical advancement in the industry has changed the lives of people directly in last few decades. Industrial revolution has contributed significantly to this change. Whether it is the matter of mass production, safety, or other social aspects like social economy and jobs for humans, it has affected everyday life. People are again expecting major changes in the industrial automation. The new generation of revolution that is supposed to start in next few years (tentatively 2020) has given the name Industry 4.0. Researchers and engineers are constantly. Focusing to make the smart devices and systems to support this concept. This industrial era is expected to embrace cyber-physical systems containing smart devices as its components and with the industrial internet of things (IIOT). This documents talks about an attempt to automate a simple paper rolling machine using Siemen’s S7-1200 processor and the HMI developed. The second section is about using the new platform to develop dynamic HMI that can assist to implement the concept of Industry 4.0. Literature review discusses about some of the transactions papers and other papers in renowned journals which talks about the concept, design principles, and aspects of the next generation of industrial revolution. Towards the end, the document has the results of the projects, some discussions, conclusions, and then some recommendations for future development of the project. Keywords: PLC, HMI, Automation, MIMO, Industry 4.0

Cite this article as: Islam Mohammad Saiful, MD Fazle Rabbi, Prof. Zhang Jiabo;  A new application for PLC in smart factory by wireless technology;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 136-155; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3706397

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Hafiz Muhammad Azeem Akhtar, Muhizi Musa, Yang Yunru
3, Issue 3; February-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 119-135; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3706378
Abstract: : A heat exchanger is a gadget that is utilized to move heat vitality (enthalpy) between two or more liquids, between a strong surface and a liquid, or between strong particulates and a liquid, at various temperatures and in heat contact. From various sorts of heat exchangers the shell and cylinder heat exchangers with straight cylinders and single pass is to be under examination. Here the update happens in view of temperature vacillation at the ninth zone of the pasteurizer. Heat and mechanical structure is run so as to upgrade the yield temperature of the cool liquid at the last heat exchanger in which it is splashed on the lager prepared for client use. In heat structure part geometry enhancement is finished through experimentation. Furthermore, for Mechanical structure part the regular frequency& vortex shedding of various parts of heat exchangers are researched through overseeing conditions of vibrations under unique liquid with in tubes. Utilizing computational liquid elements (CFD) the heat move of the two liquid is examined utilizing FEM recreation programming's Gambit1.3 and Fluent 6.1and the presentation of the STHEx decided in wording of factors, for example, pressure, temperature, stream rate, vitality input/yield, mass stream rate and mass exchange rate that are specifically compelling in STHEx examination.

Cite this article as: Hafiz Muhammad Azeem Akhtar, Muhizi Musa, Yang Yunru;  Characteristics of shell and tube heat exchanger by design and computational dynamics;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 119-135; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3706378

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Richard Atimniraye Nyelade
3, Issue 3; March-2020 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 1-24; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3700533
Abstract: The Baka are part of hunter-gatherers group of central Africa generally called “pygmies”. They are most often presented as an indigenous, monolithic and marginalised entity. After a fieldwork carried out in Nomedjoh village in South-Easthern Cameroon, audiovisual and qualitative data have been collected. The theoretical framework follows the dichotomy between structuralism and constructivism. While the former considers identity as a sum of artefacts identifiable and transmissible from generation to generation, the latter, notably with Fredrik Barth, defines ethnicity as a heterogeneous and dynamic entity that changes according to the time and space. Beyond this controversy, the data from Nomedjoh reveal that the Baka community is characterised by two trends: while one group is longing for the integration into modernity at any cost, the other group stands for the preservation of traditional values. Hence, the Baka are in a process of transition.

Cite this article as: Richard Atimniraye Nyelade;  Between the Forest and the Village: the New Social Forms of the Baka’s Life in Transition;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) : 1-24; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3700533

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 3
Ramatu Ussif, Murat Ertugrul
3, Issue 3, March-2020
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) 1-30; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3694393
Abstract: The poor been provided with financial services like credit, insurance, savings, and investment as employment creation and poverty reduction technique has earned much importance in the country for the past decade. This article examines microfinance institutions' role in poverty reduction, employment creation, and income-generating activities in Ghana. Again, it determines whether the institution has helped in the reduction of poverty, improving the standard and condition of living of its clients/customers. Primary and secondary data were used. A total of 90 respondents were interviewed made up of customers with questionnaires and was analyzed using SPSS. From the investigation, the article found out that microfinance institutions have highly impacted positively and significantly on customers in the form of income generation, employment creation, reducing poverty, increasing the standard of living and household's well-being of the customers. Also, the emanated results from the questionnaires administered reveal a favorable relationship between microfinance, poverty reduction and employment creation since most of the beneficiaries attested to a level of improvement in their businesses through the loans they receive and also improvement in their living standards and conditions since they became part of the microfinance program. Aside from the positive impacts, the institution is not without problems/issues affecting its operations and growth. These problems/issues include Risk problem, regulatory issues, capacity building problem, and problems of information gathering and dissemination which if stakeholders address properly, the microfinance institution will continue to contribute meaningfully towards employment creation, reducing poverty and increasing incomes across the world not only in Ghana.

Cite this article as: Ramatu Ussif, Murat Ertugrul;  Role Of Microfinance Institutions In Poverty Reduction Employment Creation And Income Generating Activities In Ghana;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2020 : 3(3) 1-30; : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3694393

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