North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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March 2019


  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Challagulla Kethanvee, Liu Lin
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 171-187
Abstract: Robots which are used to do surgery of percutaneous coronary intervention are electromechanical machines that can be used to do surgeries to avoid radiation or ionization repetitive in place of humans. Robots are first introduced in 1990s to clinical medicine. The Robots which are used in Medical field are getting and used widely in surgeries due to advantages like highly precision, speed, reproducibility, great access to the areas which are under operation and endurance. In cardiovascular and coronary medicine, the medical robots are now a day routinely using for minimally invasive cardiac surgeries, with the help of Intuitive Surgical the mitral valve’s repair and for the coronary artery bypass graft surgeries. The medical robots are also being used in clinical us of endovascular surgeries and percutaneous coronary interventionals (PCI).

Cite this article as: Challagulla Kethanvee, Liu Lin;  Use of Robot Devices in Percutaneous Coronary Interventions & Nanobots which are future Devices in Treatment of Heart Diseases;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 171-187

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Afeefa Rahman, Chiranjib Roy, Ashequr Rahman, Fahad Jamil, Md. Shariful Islam
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 81-101
Abstract: This research work has been carried out to assess the e-flow of the Padma, Jamuna, Teesta and Atrai. The first objective of this study is to identify the methodology among the established environment flow measurement techniques for these rivers in order to assess the flow-demand for fisheries, navigation as well as conspicuously maintenance of Sundarbans ecosystem. However, The main objective of this study is to observe the environmental flow assessment in a balanced and systematic way by the hydrological method to documentation on the subject, to examine its physical and numerical concepts and to trace the most recent trends in environmental flow assessment related research including the emerging interactions of hydrological methods with flow of water and other related fields. In this study, these observations have been accomplished mainly based on the Hydrological Method consisting of four distinct approaches. Moreover, the Flow Duration Curve analysis has also been adopted in order to get better understanding about the E- flow of the subjective rivers in the north-west zone of Bangladesh. Based on the study, the overall analysis reveals that the Padma river demands1083 m3/s of mean annual flow during January, February and March and 21676 m3/s of mean annual flow demands during August and September in Bangladesh. In addition, the Jamuna river demands 8577 m3/s of mean annual flow during February and March and 42885 m3/s of mean annual flow during July in Bangladesh, while demanding value of mean annual flow of Teesta river is 322 m3/s during January to April and 1614 m3/s of mean annual flow during July. Furthermore, Atrai River demands only 60 m3/s of mean annual flow during February and 301 m3/s of mean annual flow during June to September so far. However, the existing flow pattern of Padma or Ganges River proves that it has less than 10% of average flow during dry period (March and April), whereas the flow is more than the flushing flow (200% of average flow) during August and September. So, these rivers are in extreme condition: too much low flow in dry period and too much high flow in wet period. It is also observed that even though the flow demand for fisheries in Padma and Jamuna rivers is so called satisfactory, the mean flow is too much below the required flow in both Teesta and Atrairiver, and consequently the sustainability of Sundarban has become a foregone concern as well.

Cite this article as: Afeefa Rahman, Chiranjib Roy, Ashequr Rahman, Fahad Jamil, Md. Shariful Islam;  Environmental Flow Assessment for the Main Rivers of the North-West Zone of Bangladesh;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 81-101

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Canan Hasan, Md Kamruzzaman Sarkar, Md Mehedi Hasan, Md Tanvir Bin Nazim, Rifat Azim Sun
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 208-222
Abstract: Data publications are increasing day by day, they unit, diversity and rapidity generated data is more than the available data and difficult to analyze and construe. Billions of networked sensors are surrounded in devices that run, generate the convey data such as smart phones, automobiles , social media sites, laptop computers , PCs and industrial machines , The data obtained from different sources are structured, semi structured or unstructured form , Traditional data based systems are insufficient to process these data types. That’s why new technology introduced. The technologies developed gradually. Today’s large data sets including Collecting ,processing, analyzing and visualizing. These technologies provide great advantages for enterprises, especially by easily analyzing large unstructured data sets. The purpose of this study is to introduce the practices of Hadoop and Spark technologies used in Big Data Analysis and to discuss the advantages they provide for establishments.

Cite this article as: Canan Hasan, Md Kamruzzaman Sarkar, Md Mehedi Hasan, Md Tanvir Bin Nazim, Rifat Azim Sun;  The practice of Hadoop and Spark to Analyze Big Data in New Technologies;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 208-222

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Md Nahiduzzaman
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 196-207
Abstract: : The capacity to grabbing has enormously extended the potential outcomes for robots to perform observation, assessment or guide age errands. However it was just lately that exploration in elevated mechanical autonomy was develop enough to permit dynamic communications with nature. The robots mindful for these communications are called elevated controllers and for the most part consolidate a multirotor stage. A key fitness to control an ethereal controller is the capacity to limit it in the earth. Customarily, this confinement has required outside foundation of sensors (e.g., GPS or IR cameras), limiting the genuine applications. Moreover, limitation strategies with ready sensors, sent out from different apply autonomy fields, for example, concurrent confinement and mapping (Hammer), require substantial computational units turning into an impediment in vehicles where estimate, load, what's more, control utilization are imperative confinements. In such manner, this theory proposes a technique to appraise the condition of the vehicle (i.e., position, introduction, speed and increasing speed) by methods for ready, minimal effort, light-weight and high-rate sensors.furthermore, at least one mechanical arms.

Cite this article as: Md Nahiduzzaman;  Intelligent Grabbing of Manipulator Based on Visual Guidance;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 196-207

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Anfa Farah Botan, Ozer Birge, Tingting Cheng, Chang Shu
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 189-196
Abstract: This study aims to determine the risk factors associated with thrombus of lower extremity veins among pregnant and puerperal women. Introduction: Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is one of the top causes of death among pregnant women in the Western world. It is a reproductive health peril for women. During pregnancy, the risk of venous thrombosis reaches up to 5-fold, and get as high as 60-fold postpartum. Its average occurrence is approximately 1 in 1000 pregnancies. Furthermore, women who are pregnant are more prone to DVT than non-pregnant women of the same age by 6 to 10-fold. During pregnancy, the incidences of thrombosis is similar among the pregnant women in each of the three trimesters and surges during the postpartum period. Materials and Methods: In this systematic review, selected studies on pregnant women with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) were critically determined and evaluated. The researchers used an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating the literature. The patients had to be pregnant and had to be diagnosed with DVT and VTE. The findings of the collection of research studies were discussed concentrating on the risk factors. Baseline characteristics recorded were age of the patient and infections and comorbidities were documented. Risk factors were then identified and evaluated in terms of rate of incidences. Results: More than 1.2 million pregnancies and related puerperal periods were studied. The frequencyrate for DVT and VTE during a pregnancy with hospitalization or not was computed per year. Women hospitalized were found more to be at risk especially if they stayed for more than 3-6 days. Moreover, puerperal venous thromboembolism was associated with obesity, elective and acute caesarean sections and postpartum blood transfusion. Conclusion: The most common risk factors associated with thrombus of lower extremity veins among pregnant and puerperal women were hospitalization, infection, hyperemesis, preeclampsia, multiple pregnancy, obesity, postpartum blood transfusion, caesarian section and intrauterine growth restriction or fetal death.

Cite this article as: Anfa Farah Botan, Ozer Birge, Tingting Cheng, Chang Shu;  Risk Factors Associated with Thrombus of Lower Extremity Veins;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 189-196

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Hassan Syed
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 155-170
Abstract: The present heightened environment of the so-called ‘global war on terrorism’ has pushed the national security and public safety to forefront of strategic policy and legislative agendas. The human rights in general and data protection rights in particular have paled in contrast to the state security agencies intrusions in available digital data of the citizens. It is then left up to the Courts such as the European Court of Justice (‘CJEU/ECJ’) Luxembourg and the European Court of Human Rights (‘ECtHR’) Strasbourg to avail opportunities presented to them in their justiciability of data protection rights interferences. Both the Courts apply the European Charter for Fundamental Rights (‘the Charter’) and the European Convention on Human Rights (‘the Convention’) respectively to carry their analysis of rights interferences with the legitimate objectives of national security and public safety. Our critical analysis of the data protection case law of both the Courts confirms that the Courts have struck a balance in protecting the individual data protection rights and the legitimate aims of national security and public safety. Our analysis shows that it was ECtHR that laid the foundation of applying the principles of necessity and proportionality consistently in its analysis of interferences with Article 8 Convention rights in pursuing the aims of fighting serious crime and terrorism . ECJ has followed ECtHR’s reasoning of necessity and proportionality in its landmark judgments of Digital Ireland , Schrems and Watson . The ECJ was confronted with the questions of blanket coverage allowing mass surveillance and access to users’ data by the state security agencies under the EU Directives. ECJ declared such measures invalid ,failing the necessity and proportionality tests in the absence of legal measures that could protect those who did not fall into the category of suspects defined under the law. ECJ accepted such interferences with Article 7 (right to privacy) and 8 (right to data protection) Charter rights necessary in pursuits of aims to fight serious crime and terrorism. The requirement of a robust legal framework that justifies ECHR Art 8 Privacy rights interferences with data protection, has been accepted by the Court as necessary in the face of security challenges such as fighting terrorism and prevention serious transnational crimes. ECtHR also considers the availability of national legal remedies for interferences through independent bodies in its analysis of necessary and proportional in a democratic society. ECJ has also laid emphasis on availability of legal remedies in cases of interferences with data protection rights while interpreting EU Legislations in the light of rights under Art 8 CFR. While ECJ protects data rights under CFR Art 8 Data Protection Right, ECtHR extends ECHR Art 8 Right to Privacy to protect data rights. Both the Courts readily acknowledge the society’s needs to fight serious crimes and terrorism in their case law. It is the balance that both the Courts strike while relying on the principles of necessity and proportionality that ensures the protection of data rights of those who abide by the rule of law in a democratic society.

Cite this article as: Hassan Syed;  Data Protection Rights & National Security Objectives: Critical Analysis of ECtHR and CJEU Case Law;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 155-170

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Gisela Moreno, Haiyun Liu, Nouman Mirza
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 141-154
Abstract: Following the line of trade literature, our study aims to understand the impact of trade facilitators (LPI and GCI) on total trade. While considering a cross section OLS of 109 countries, classified by their income-levels and regions, we emphasize on the differences in facilitations of international trade. We exhibit that irrespective of other trade facilitators, better logistics are enhancing trade flows in several regions (including Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Sub-Saharan Africa, East & Asian Pacific and South Asia), whereas, competitiveness plays an important role promoting trade in Middle East & North Africa. It further implicates that countries improving their logistics services assist in the enhancement of trade.

Cite this article as: Gisela Moreno, Haiyun Liu, Nouman Mirza;  Logistics Performance and Global Competitiveness : The Rule on Trade;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 141-154

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Fuseini Jibreel
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) :131-140
Abstract: : Energy efficiency in routing protocols for Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) continue to receive more attention because the networks need them for data transmission. Threshold Sensitive Stable Election Protocol (TSEP), is reactive protocol that employed three levels of heterogeneity. The reactive nature of the protocol is because, the scheme has introduced hard and soft thresholds so that, the data will not be transmitted unnecessarily to the Base station by the nodes. This strategy has reduced energy consumption in the network. However, it was realised that, the thresholds used in selecting the cluster heads did not take into account the residual energy of the nodes and the distance between the nodes and the base station. These two factors become necessary since the nodes are mostly deployed at random. Also, the Base station is placed at the centre of the field, so when it comes application where the Base station must be outside, this protocol will have limitations. In this research work, an extended form of TSEP called eTSEP has been proposed. The new scheme introduces the distance and residual energy into the election probabilities of each level of the nodes. This will allow nodes with high residual energy and closer to the Base station to stand a better chance of becoming a cluster head. The performance of the scheme was evaluated using MatLab 2017a and compared with TSEP. The simulation results showed that, the new protocol performed better than TSEP in terms of throughputs, residual energy and the network life time.

Cite this article as: Fuseini Jibreel;  Extended Threshold Stable Election Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) :131-140

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Article: Cover page
NAAR
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. Cover Page
Abstract: Cover page

Cite this article as: NAAR;  Cover page;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. Cover Page

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Beghan Beghanov,Han Long
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 120-130
Abstract: In spite of the fact that there is abundant proof that financial exchanges respond adversely to deceptive corporate conduct, our comprehension of the systems that shape variety in these responses crosswise over various occurrences of wrongdoing stays immature. We propose and test a structure for clarifying this variety by concentrating on the job of the media in spreading beginning data about unfortunate behavior. We contend that the flagging impacts of this data are essential for financial specialists since companies have solid motivators to restrain the data they unveil about unfortunate behavior. All the more explicitly, we conjecture that financial specialists are bound to respond adversely when the media introduces clear and sound data that unfortunate behavior happened, that the firm was in charge of it, and that the offense was the aftereffect of more profound hierarchical issues. We additionally foresee that data which flags that a firm has remedial limit tempers speculator responses when the media places fault for unfortunate behavior on the company as opposed to explicit people. We test our speculations in a special example of 345 demonstrations of corporate unfortunate behavior in five European nations. Our discoveries give expansive help to our theories, and we talk about suggestions for research on corporate wrongdoing and the job of non-state on-screen characters in controlling untrustworthy corporate conduct.

Cite this article as: Beghan Beghanov,Han Long;  The Legal Liabilities of the Mass Media to the Securities Holders;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 120-130

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Md Nahiduzzaman
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 116-119
Abstract: The objective of this article is to raise questions on the lack of proportion between human factor or ergonomics with the comedy film Modern Times(1936) by Charles Chaplin, and to understand this reality. What we realize, from that look, is that the emancipation of aircraft brought modernity, however, the emancipation of humane working conditions failed to materialize. One of the search results shows that workers routinely claim that the most common errors and failures are related to time constraints, shift pressures that lead to fatigue, memory failure, lack of knowledge, lack of training and supervision in addition to restricted spaces, atmospheric hazards, and physical risks. The conclusion shows the need of a less coercive workplace and therefore more productive. The question of the modern versus the ancient – the movie’s theme – transcends time and we will use it to show that this issue is present in the current reality experienced by maintenance workers of ergonomics. There is a need to act quickly. We must learn the facts and prevent tragedies. There is a symbolism that permeates the film to present a “Chaplinesque” criticism in relation to modernity and how we are dealing with the advancement of technology. The film begins with the sentence: Modern Times is "the story of industry, of individual enterprise - humanity crusading in the pursuit of happiness" Charles Chaplin foresaw much of what Human Factors at work proposes today. The work should be seen as an active life, not as an exhausting and stressful activity, should be an activity that generates physical and mental well-being, to bring intellectual and personal growth, it should be a socializing agent. Finally, it should be an activity that focuses on safety and humanization instead of rushing, automation & mechanism. Shouldn’t our mechanism think of maintenance quality programs to increase the productivity and quality of services without the necessary loss of quality of human being? In order to achieve a broader debate on the topic, this work has a qualitative approach, bibliographic search techniques, documents, interviews with people who have had practical experience with the researched problem, and examples analysis that stimulate understanding and give meaning to the studies.

Cite this article as: Md Nahiduzzaman;  “Modern Times” Charlie Chaplin's Film : An Analogy Between The Modernity and The Reality of Ergonomics”;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 116-119

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Md Nahiduzzaman
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 102-115
Abstract: The framework of universal design (UD) is a way to improve access to university campuses This paper reflects on a participatory research project on accessible space at the Hohai University. Student researcher at the Disability Resource Center conducted a map-based qualitative study with members of the campus community to investigate the view of an accessible environment. Data analysis shows the importance of hidden and stealth barriers, the accessibility of the attitude and the campus user's adaptive strategy. This paper surveys UD in Hohai university, Changzhou Campus as a case study to enable it to take lessons from a Well-connected and accessible campus in terms of UD. This paper investigates the spatial experience and the generally designed life experiences in the institutional environment, and provides a model for students to participate in applied research.

Cite this article as: Md Nahiduzzaman;  Implementation of Universal Design in Hohai University, Changzhou Campus;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 102-115

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Hassan Syed
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 72-80
Abstract: : The Criminal law of England & Wales is famously notorious for making ‘legal sandwiches’ when confronted with criminal liabilities arising from amalgamations of Norman laws with contemporary law reforms for crimes such as theft to fatal offences such as voluntary manslaughter. The very definition of ‘Murder’ comes from Lord Coke’s seventeen century text on criminal law. Despite the seriousness of the crime of murder the statutory laws of England and Wales are silent on its definition. Lord Coke stated: ‘Murder is when a man of sound memory, and of age of discretion, unlawfully killeth within any country of the realm any reasonable creature in rerum natura under the king’s peace, with malice aforethought, either expressed by the party or implied by law’ The practitioners and students of law alike, memorize these famous words and happily go about the business of law albeit a lingering suspicion to what these words actually mean. Lord Neuberger of Abbotsbury in his famous lecture said about the reality of the ‘meaning’ in these profound words borrowed from Sir Hartley Shawcross ,‘‘‘When I use a word,” said Humpty-Dumpty’ — …………..— ' it means just what I intended it to mean, and neither more nor less.'” But,” said Alice, “the question is whether you can make a word mean different things.” “Not so,” said Humpty-Dumpty,” the question is which is to be the master. That's all”.’The defence of Insanity and its present reform debate is much like the ‘humpty-dumpty’ reference from the above quote. The title of the paper took its inspiration from Lord Neuberger, one of the truly great Jurists of our times. The slow and painful reform process on the full-defence of insanity has done little to explain the complex tension that exists within the law and the present definitions of neurosciences. It seems the law still wants to be the ‘master’ in this debate and not allow the ‘hard science’ of neurology to establish definitive rules that can guide reasonable application of this defence. This paper attempts to highlight the tensions between law and science for the defence of insanity.

Cite this article as: Hassan Syed;  Defence of Insanity : ‘Humpty Dumpty’ Law Reform;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 72-80

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Phyu Phyu Tun, Chandra Bhushan Sah, Shwe Sin Win, Kopila Shrestha
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 58-71
Abstract: : Utilization of garden wastes as an alternative material for fossil fuel is of interest due to its environmental friendliness. This study deals with the preparation and characterization of briquettes from coconut husks s. Two different sizes of coconut husks such as (-20) mesh size and 0.3 cm length cutting size were used in preparing coconut husks briquettes. In the preparation of briquette, the coconut husks were densified using potato starch as a binding agent by using a manual briquetting machine. The briquettes were tested to evaluate their physical characteristics like volatile matter content, ash content, moisture content, fixed carbon content, maximum density, relaxed density, and combustion characteristics such as calorific values, ignition time, cooking efficiency, burning rate, and specific fuel consumption of briquettes were determined. The characteristics of coconut husks briquettes have proved that it possesses good biomass fuel and are more feasible as comparable to firewood charcoal.

Cite this article as: Phyu Phyu Tun, Chandra Bhushan Sah, Shwe Sin Win, Kopila Shrestha;  The Preparation and Characteristics of Briquettes From Coconut Husks as Renewable Source of Energy;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 58-71

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Md. Sadiqur Rahman , Taslima Jahan, Monjur Morshed, Md. Riyadh Arefin, Dr. M. Moynul Haque
Volume 2, Issue 3; March -2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 50-57
Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Seed Technology and Plant Pathology laboratory of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University to evaluate the seed quality and health of some were used in this experiment.

Cite this article as: Md. Sadiqur Rahman , Taslima Jahan, Monjur Morshed, Md. Riyadh Arefin, Dr. M. Moynul Haque;  Evaluation of Seed Quality and Health of Some Aus Rice Genotypes;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 50-57

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Md. Sadiqur Rahman , AKM Azad, Monjur Morshed, Taslima Jahan, Dr. Md. Alamgir Hossain, Fabiha Haque
Volume 2, Issue 3; March -2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 43-49
Abstract: An experiment was conducted at thenursery of the Regional Agricultural Research Station, Akbarpur, Moulvibazar, Bangladesh in August’ 2017 to standardize the age of rootstock on the success of epicotyl grafting in offseason jackfruit. The experiment consisted of four types of rootstocks viz., 10, 14, 18 and 22 days old seedlings, laid out in RCBD with three replications. The results revealed that 10 days old rootstock was more suitable for epicotyl grafting in offseason jackfruit as it provided more survival rate and subsequent growth of grafts having the better healing process of the graft union.

Cite this article as: Md. Sadiqur Rahman , AKM Azad, Monjur Morshed, Taslima Jahan, Dr. Md. Alamgir Hossain, Fabiha Haque;  Standardization of Rootstock Age on Epicotyl Grafting in Off-season Jackfruit;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 43-49

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Gisela Moreno, Haiyun Liu, Nouman Mirza
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 33-42
Abstract: This study shows that gross capital formation affects economic growth positively in Colombia during the period 1984-2017. Along with gross capital formation, we have considered trade variables (exports and imports). Estimations for long and short run, we have employed autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL). For directional causality, we have employed Granger-causality. Our findings, with error correction model, exhibit positive and significant gross capital formation with economic growth in Colombia in long and short run. Whereas, trade variables were found not significant in ARDL forlong run estimations. The findings of Granger-causality provide a bidirectional causality of gross capital formation and imports between economic growth, yet no causality has been found with exports. These results imply that for enhancing economic growth in Colombia, the country should increase gross capital formation. Moreover, it is important that countries in Latin America where gross capital formation is taking place very accurately, that they focus on increasing exports by improving their productivity. In addition, Colombia should imply trade policies within other countries, especially its trading partners for enhancing economic growth.

Cite this article as: Gisela Moreno, Haiyun Liu, Nouman Mirza;  Gross Capital Formation, Trade and Economic Growth in Colombia: An empirical ARDL approach;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 33-42

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Sadam Hussain Chandio, Sanjrani Manzoor Ahmed, Seerat ul Ain Bhutto, Muneer Ahmed Sanjrani, Nafees Ali Khaskheli
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 20-32
Abstract: Margallah Hills National Park is one of the ecologically significant areas in Pakistan occupying an area of 17386 ha. It is a diverse Park having dense biodiversity of Plants, Animals and Birds species, water courses flowing through the Heart of this National Park from Kurang River and its tributaries to Soan River. Margallah Hill National Park is a home of 600 plants species, 250 birds’ varieties, 38 mammals’ species and 13 species of reptiles. MHNP has a different recreational spots that attracts the tourists to visit. In the past few years, the problem of unsustainable tourism, solid waste and wildfire (both natural and anthropogenic) has affected the biodiversity of this Park by changing in the wildlife behavior, damaging their habitats, vulnerability to disturbance in the breeding seasons and juvenile stages of their offspring. The primary and secondary data collection method through participatory approach were used to collect the information includes FGD, s, interviews and questionnaire. More than 100000 people visits the trails (5 and 6) for hiking, and almost 200000 people visits the recreational spots. In the last few years, tourist’s pressure, restaurants and huts has increased the solid waste in the recreational spots causing contamination of water courses and deteriorated the aesthetic value of this park. Natural wildfire has burnt 205.8 acres area in the last four years, which burnt all the floral species and severely impacted the wildlife and its habitat. 90% of the wildfire is caused by the anthropogenic activities except fire season (April to July). After detail analysis of the area, solid waste management plan, awareness campaigns, installation of waste bins, and up gradation of the firefighting techniques and construction of ecological bridges in the national park were proposed for the area.

Cite this article as: Sadam Hussain Chandio, Sanjrani Manzoor Ahmed, Seerat ul Ain Bhutto, Muneer Ahmed Sanjrani, Nafees Ali Khaskheli;  Impact of Natural Events and Anthropogenic Activities on the Biodiversity of Margallah Hills National Park Islamabad (MHNP);  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 20-32

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Canan Gumus
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 10-19
Abstract: The Mega project -New Silk Road (NSR)- first announced by Chinese President Xi Jinping in 2013. With this project China aims to invest in infrastructure projects including railways and power grids in central, west and southwestern Asia: as well as Africa and Europe. The NSR initiatives will boost the interactions of the countries located along the Silk Road and on the possible economic corridors which may widen the map of current route. With this interaction some countries like China, Russia, Germany, etc., they may build close strategic partnerships to be ready for changing globe and global market.Moreover, with these upcoming strategic partnerships, China is going to take over the place of economic game makers with its supervision of global changes. This paper aims to conduct a desk research to analyze possible economic corridors for NSR. In this concept, the paper examines the possible upcoming environmental, global, political and economic changes and its effects on Asian countries economic integration on NSR.

Cite this article as: Canan Gumus;  A New Perspective For Modern Silk Road And Changing Global Environment: The Idea of Pole Silk Road;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 10-19

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 3
Gisela Moreno, Haiyun Liu, Nouman Mirza
Volume 2, Issue 3; March-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 01-09
Abstract: This study analyses the effects of gross capital formation, manufacturing output, and government consumption on economic growth from 1981-2017. We employ ARDL bound testing approach to consider the long run effects of the regressors on economic growth. Our findings, with error correction model, exhibit the positive long and short run relationship of all the regressors with economic growth. The results provide the significant of government consumption and gross capital formation affecting positively economic growth. Interestingly, manufacturing output is less significant in Colombia for short run analysis. The study provides the implications that Colombia as a developing country, needs to increase the capital stocks enhancing sectoral growth specially manufacturing sector for healthy economic growth.

Cite this article as: Gisela Moreno, Haiyun Liu, Nouman Mirza;  Capital Formation, Manufacturing Productivity, Government Consumption and Economic Growth in Colombia: An ARDL Bound Testing Approach;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(3) : 01-09

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