North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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June 2019


  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Akinmola Olukayode, Omoyele Olusola, OfagborEkitumi Robert, Isuajah Chukwuka Emmanuel, Okusanya Oluwatomi Babasola
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 48-53; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3247938
Abstract: CASE DESCRIPTION : A case of a 37 year old female P3+1 (3A), who presented with an eleven day history of progressive weakness of all limbs and inability to walk. On examination, she was not in obvious distress, however, power in both upper and lower limbs was less than 5/5. She was admitted as a case of Quadriparesis ?cause. Urgent serum electrolytes requested on admission revealed marked hypokalaemia of 1.3 mmol/L. Serum magnesium measured after 24 hours of IV potassium correction for deficit and daily requirements with minimal improvement in serum potassium values revealed hypomagnaesemia. She subsequently developed polyuria and polydipsia with urine output of 4.5 – 10.1 liters a day. She was then managed as a case of severe hypokalemia with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus using Tabs Ibuprofen 400 mg 6 hourly, Tabs Amiloride 5mg daily, and calculated potassium correction. She improved with resolution of all symptoms at discharge and restoration of serum potassium value.

Cite this article as: Akinmola Olukayode, Omoyele Olusola, OfagborEkitumi Robert, Isuajah Chukwuka Emmanuel, Okusanya Oluwatomi Babasola;  A CASE OF POSTPARTUM QUADRIPARESIS;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 48-53; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3247938

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Sahui Magby Henri Joel Regis
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 206-216; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3261864
Abstract: The Belt and Road Initiative was introduced in 2013 by China to the world. The initiative reached several countries in Africa where several development projects are conducted. Cote d’ Ivoire, which is also an African country, accepted to deepen its cooperation with China by joining the well-promoted Belt and Road initiative. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution and impact of the Belt and Road Initiative in Cote d’Ivoire. An investigation of official sources, economic factors, interviews, and SWOT analysis leads to the finding that the Belt and Road Initiative was successfully implemented in Cote d’Ivoire and is contributing to the development of the country. The notion of win-win promoted by China seems to be effective.

Cite this article as: Sahui Magby Henri Joel Regis;  Impacts of the Belt and Road Initiative on the Development of Cote d’Ivoire;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 206-216; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3261864

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Md. Nuruzzaman, Rokshana Akter Bristy, Md Zahir Ahmed
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 191-205; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3257781
Abstract: The paper examines the service indicators of the newly implemented hybrid bus in Lanzhou city, China, which has not been rigorously studied yet. The bus transport in the city is the only way of mass transportation, which was considered as one of the most polluted cities in the world. It was a big challenge for the policymakers to develop a better transportation system by not hindering the environment. A newer transportation facility always needs to be analyzed if the passengers are accepting this well. Comprehensive exploratory factor analysis has been used to identify the vital service indicators which are finally packed into key factors by the confirmatory factor analysis and regression analysis. Our study suggests that the mass level people care more about their riding experiences than environmental concerns. Transport policymakers can use this information while implementing the new mode of buses.

Cite this article as: Md. Nuruzzaman, Rokshana Akter Bristy, Md Zahir Ahmed;  Analyses of the Hybrid bus Passenger’s Satisfaction of Lanzhou, China;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 191-205; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3257781

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Ali Zulfiqar, Dr. Gao Meng, Yousuf Ali, Hussain Muttahir, Malik Muhammad
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 177-190; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3257756
Abstract: Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) is consider one of important contributor of fruit production in Pakistan however, Production of fruit is low as compare to other parts of country due to different factor like, remoteness, Shortage infrastructure (road), lack of market and traditional practice’s etc. Therefore, this study was aimed to develop linkages between CPEC and fruit industry of GB. The study was based on both primary and secondary data as well as quantitative and qualitative data. Primary data was collected from field through face to face interview using well-structured questionnaire and secondary data was collected from different sources i.e. books, articles and journals. Simple Random Sampling Technique was used to collect data from farmers and Shopkeepers and the Snowball sampling technique was used to collect data particularly from middlemen. The data was collected from three type of respondents i.e. farmers, shopkeepers and retailers. The data was collected through well-structured questionnaires including both quantitative and qualitative parts. Data was described with the help of graphs and tables. The data shows that there were strong linkages between CPEC and fruit (Dry and Fresh) industry of GB. The finding of this study revealed that hindrance that decline fruit production in like lack of transportation, low price, climate change, lack of market information, lack of government service, lack of cultivated land tradition method of production, pest and disease, lack of industries and lack of technical expertise. The opinion of respondents regarding does “CPEC will open new opportunities for local people to boost their fruit production and uplift their livelihoods” is very positive as 74% farmers, 85 % shopkeepers and 90% middlemen agreed with the statement. The research also revealed that 90% farmers, 80%, shopkeepers and 86% middlemen were in opinion that CPEC will improve communication and accessibility with other parts of the country while, 87% farmers, 85% shopkeepers and 90% middlemen agreed that it will reduced transportation cost. The study also finds that 75% farmers, 60% shopkeepers and 80% middlemen claimed that after implementation of this project agriculture and life standard of farmers will improve because it helps to improve our fruits production. Moreover, the data shows that average gross production of fresh fruit in Manipin was greater than gross production in Syedabad on the other side. One of the interesting finding of the study is that the Opinion on “Negative Implication of CPEC on GB” Environment i.e. 80% local farmers, 85% Shopkeepers and 90% middlemen claimed that CPEC will further lead climatic changes in GB, 73% farmers, 70% Shopkeepers and 80% middlemen agreed that CPEC will lead land degradation. 75% farmers, 80% Shopkeepers and 50% claimed that after implementation of CPEC local fruit industry will not able compete Chinese exports.

Cite this article as: Ali Zulfiqar, Dr. Gao Meng, Yousuf Ali, Hussain Muttahir, Malik Muhammad;  Impact of China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) on Fruit Industry in Gilgit-Baltistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 177-190; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3257756

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Joyce L. Bautista, Sopia binti Md Yassin
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 163-176; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3257648
Abstract: The increasing demand for a new culture for quality education implicates a new way of thinking and implementing effective continuing professional development for early childhood education teachers. Early childhood education teachers need to be able to commit themselves to continuing professional development to remain current and to successfully achieve high quality education for all young children and their families. Effective continuing professional development programs help early childhood education teachers grow personally and professionally. The inclusion of the core elements that make continuing professional development effective is more important than the type of activities being considered in most programs. (Desimone, 2009; Desimone, Porter, Garet, Yoon, &Birman, 2002; Garet, Porter, Desimone, Birman, & Yoon, 2001). The core elements provides a framework in sustaining and unifying the vision that will guide the conduct of professional development programs for early childhood education teachers and to make them relevant to the needs of the times. The core elements in sustaining effective professional development should be: 1) assessment-focused; 2) learner-focused; 3) content-focused; and 4) community of practice-focused. School administrators, professional development providers and early childhood education teachers will be on the right path given the right framework with comprehensive outcomes in planning for professional development programs.

Cite this article as: Joyce L. Bautista, Sopia binti Md Yassin;  The Core Elements in Sustaining Effective Professional Development for Early Childhood Education Teachers;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 163-176; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3257648

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Saif-Ur-Rehman Khan Jadoon, Ishtiaq Ahmed Khan Jadoon, Ding Lin
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 148-162; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3252225
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate the hydrocarbon potential of Miano and Kadanwari blocks, located in the Central Indus Basin (CIB), Sindh province, Pakistan. Kadanwari and Miano fields located in between two extensive NW-SE oriented regional highs i.e. Jacobabad-Khairpur and Mari-Kandhkot High were discovered in 1989 and 1993 respectively. The CIB is an extensional basin exhibiting normal faulting. Borehole data from 5 wells was used to assess the petroleum system of the two fields. Well logs of Miano-02 and Kadanwari-10 were analysed to calculate the petro-physical parameters such as the volume of shale, porosity, water saturation, and hydrocarbon saturation. These fields are interpreted to have significant recoverable reserves of 1662 (BCF) equivalents to 280 (MMBOE).

Cite this article as: Saif-Ur-Rehman Khan Jadoon, Ishtiaq Ahmed Khan Jadoon, Ding Lin;  An Insight into the petroleum system and hydrocarbon potential of Miano and Kadanwari blocks, Central Indus Basin, Pakistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 148-162; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3252225

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Umair Khan Jadoon, Ding Lin, Muhammad Rameez Zeb, Ahsan Ali Khan, Malik Muhammad Saud Sajid Khan, Yasin Rahim, Syed Tallataf Hussain Shah
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 102-110; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3248887
Abstract: Being a part of Higher Himalayan region, Mansehra district and surrounding areas are always explored for the commercial mining due to its rich natural mineral resources. This study for the first time provides detail physical characterization of the Mansehra Dolerite, in order to calculate the potential reserves for the industrial and commercial use. Geochemical Laboratory test for the studied dolerite revealed that SiO2are highest lying between47.03 and 48.64 (wt.%), whileAl2O3 content varies from 13.8 wt.% to 15.21 wt.%. Iron (Fe2O3) ranges from 12.03 wt.% to 14.43 wt.% and MgO from 6.3 to 7.21 wt.%. TiO2content is low having a range of 0.77 – 1.95 wt.%. CaO composition ranges between 9.57 and 11.51 wt. %. Compositionally, Dolerite consists of fine to medium grained, anhedral to subhedral grain shape. The measured porosity is < 5%, hardness is 6.3 and specific gravity is 3.2. Whereas, the mechanical properties includes compressive strength i.e. ~13071 Psi which indicates its best usage for industrial purpose. On the surface, the body is extending over a length of about 80 to 100 meters. In order to reveal the potential reserve estimation, (Length x Width x Depth x Specific Gravity) formula is used. From six Quarries, total reserves of Quarry No 1, 2 and 3 is1.15 Million Tones whereas for Quarry 4,5 and 6 boulders are extracted giving the potential of 150 ton per month. Ratio of recovery from the mine is about 40 to 45% which is about 456750 Tons where as 30% of waste is used for the production of cobbles, aggregate and for building materials. By using the advance techniques of mining one can enhance the production in the future.

Cite this article as: Umair Khan Jadoon, Ding Lin, Muhammad Rameez Zeb, Ahsan Ali Khan, Malik Muhammad Saud Sajid Khan, Yasin Rahim, Syed Tallataf Hussain Shah;  Mansehra Dolerite Deposit Assessment and Quarry Development Evaluation of Doga Sayyedan Site Higher Himalayas, North Pakistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 102-110; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3248887

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Jalal Ahmed, Afshan Zareen, MD. Mamunur Rahman, Farzana Akter, Shamima Sarker, Moyinul Islam, Rasnatun Ferdous, Md Mehedi Hasan Rubel
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 102-110; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3247962
Abstract: Based on a supplementary study on jacquard standards warp knitting technology and their construction, this study offers the modern simulation design model of computer-aided design (CAD) to fabricate stitch forming jacquard warp-knitted fabric highly methodical. In particular, the application of knitting CAD technology develops it more expedient to design and manufacture fabric for textile industry it brings huge social and economic advantage. According to the research of warp knitting technology is the basic of computer graphics and other programming technical tools as like as VC++6.0, integrative is a key to complete the study. At first, the thesis establishes the process of fabric simulation model and expansion of stitch forming jacquard warp knitted fabric in essence. After that, the research analyses the structure and improvement of the stitch forming jacquard warp knitted fabric, acquire the appearance of fabric looks as well as affects the parameters of its. The research is correlated with mathematical models and technical methods for simulation of this type of fabric. Finally, the research designs the software (CAD) which is applied to simulate the stitch forming jacquard warp knitted fabric, and also develop with the computer programming tool VC++6.0. Comprehend the simulation this kind of fabric construction and gets final design with some fabric effect.

Cite this article as: Jalal Ahmed, Afshan Zareen, MD. Mamunur Rahman, Farzana Akter, Shamima Sarker, Moyinul Islam, Rasnatun Ferdous, Md Mehedi Hasan Rubel;  Research on Computer Simulation of the Stitch Forming Jacquard Warp-Knitted Fabric;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 102-110; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3247962

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Dr-MINN THANT, YEE MON PHAY, AMR ABDELWAHED
2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 76-89; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3247938
Abstract: The Buddha taught not only the matters to lead to Nibbana (liberation, the ultimate goal of Buddhism), but also the secular matters to gain peace and happiness along the course to be born in the circle of births. The guidance of Buddha’s secular matter is excellent ways and means to live in mundane household life. If one or others follow those ways and means, they will be able to accomplish any affair thoroughly and successfully. Nowadays many associations are established to bring about the welfare in religion, social affairs, and politics. The religious and social associations help those who are victims of calamity, giving the needs to them. Similarly, those from political parties or groups are trying to find solution of diversion in the country and to reconcile them.

Cite this article as: Dr-MINN THANT, YEE MON PHAY, AMR ABDELWAHED;  What the Buddha taught about peace for Laymen;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 76-89; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3247938

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Obeta, M.U ., Eze, E.M., Ofojekwu M.N., Jwanse, R.I., Maduka, M.K.
Volume 2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 69-75; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3246909
Abstract: Departmental or Directorate organogram is a chart or graphic representation of reporting hierarchical relationships with descriptive roles and responsibilities. Organogram in many human resource related processes is employed to make decisions including, but not limited to, recruitment, classification, organizational development activities such as restructuring, and training and medical laboratory services is not an exception. The organogram of various health institutions exists with or without medical laboratory services, organogram for medical laboratory services in Nigeria provided by this paper puts all health institutions in a clear picture of nature of the organogram every health institution running medical laboratory services should look like in near future with emphasis on medical laboratory management.

Cite this article as: Obeta, M.U ., Eze, E.M., Ofojekwu M.N., Jwanse, R.I., Maduka, M.K.;  Organogram for Medical Laboratory Services in Nigerian Public Health Institutions;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 69-75; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3246909

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Md Owahedur Rahman, Muhammad Bilal Tariq
Volume 2, Issue 6; June-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 54-68; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3245566
Abstract: Air pollution happens when gases, dust particles, exhaust (or smoke) or scent are brought into the climate such that makes it unsafe to people, creatures and plant. Air pollution undermines the wellbeing of people and other living creatures in our planet. It makes exhaust cloud and corrosive downpour, causes malignancy and respiratory maladies, decreases the ozone layer climate and adds to worldwide warming. In this modern age, air pollution can't be dispensed with totally, yet steps can be taken to lessen it. The administration has created, and keeps on creating, rules for air quality and statutes to confine outflows with an end goal to control air pollution. On an individual dimension, we can lessen our commitment to the pollution issue via carpooling or utilizing open transportation. Furthermore, purchasing vitality effective lights and apparatuses or generally decreasing our power use will diminish the pollutions discharged in the generation of power, which makes most of mechanical air pollution.

Cite this article as: Md Owahedur Rahman, Muhammad Bilal Tariq;  The Causes and Effects and Control Systems of Industrial Air Pollution;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 54-68; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3245566

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Hamdan A. Taleb
Volume 2, Issue 6; June-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 31-47 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3243632
Abstract: With the development of bioinformatics, the performance of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technology is also improving. Peak detection is always a very active field in NGS, because the success of data analysis largely depends on the accuracy of peak detection. based on the characteristics of existing peak detection technology, in this paper we developed a peak detection algorithm for DNase-seq data analysis. The process of PeakCaller algorithm mainly includes the following three stages: 1) data preprocessing; 2) data analysis, which is specifically divided into a) detecting the genomic location of dnase-seq data, b) using gaussian convolution to trim configuration data, c) determining candidate peaks, and d) determining DHSS peaks; 3) algorithm performance evaluation. PeakCaller algorithm is a peak detection algorithm for DNase-seq data. PeakCaller is written in Python3. the algorithm is open source and available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/peakcaller1/

Cite this article as: Hamdan A. Taleb;  Peak Caller: A Peak Calling Algorithm for DNase-seq Data;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 31-47 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3243632

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Arati Poudel, Ayush Raj Gyawali
Volume 2, Issue 6; June-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 18-30 ; DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3243460
Abstract: This study analyses the change in the annual and seasonal trend of maximum and minimum temperature (Tmax and Tmin) and diurnal temperature range (DTR) for a period of 30 years (1986- 2015). The Karnali river basin (KRB) in the western region of Nepal is selected for this study as sufficient studies are not available in this region and is more susceptible to the impacts of climate change. The results clearly show that both Tmax(0.038 °C year-1) and Tmin(0.026°C year-1) is increasing significantly in KRB but the magnitude is higher for Tmax. Seasonally, pre-monsoon and monsoon shows a significant rise in temperature. The DTR trend is increasing annually (0.011 °C year-1) and in pre-monsoon and monsoon while decreasing in post-monsoon and winter season. This clear rise in temperature in KRB is parallel with the global and regional warming scenario.

Cite this article as: Arati Poudel, Ayush Raj Gyawali;  Analysis of Annual and Seasonal Temperature Variability in The Karnali River Basin, Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 18-30 ; DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3243460

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Lammessa Berisa, Aschalew Lakew, Alemayehu Negassa
Volume 2, Issue 6; June-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 09-17
Abstract: Riverine ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems in the world that supports a large proportion of the earth’s biodiversity.Numerous plants and animals survive and grow in water and thus, it serves as home of aquatic organisms.However, anthropogenic activities in theriver system and its catchment have adverse effect on the existence of aquatic biota and hamper the provision of good quality water.This study was conducted to assess theecological health status of River Berga using benthic macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. The study was carried out at three sampling sites (Cecafe, Melka fiche and Kimoye) in December 2016, February and April 2017.Sampling sites were selected based on land use pattern, habitat types, substrate structure and other human activities.Macroinvertebrates were collected using a standard hand netwith frame width of 25*25 cm and the collected macroinvertebrates were identified to family level. A total of 7295 benthic macroinvertebrates comprising 38 families, 10 orders and 3 phyla were recorded. Among benthic macroinvertebrates, Ephemeroptera (53%), Trichoptera (36.23%) and Diptera (4.67%) were the dominant taxa groups. Diversity index such as Shannon-Weiner diversity and biotic scores like ETHbios showed increasing degradation along the river channel mainly from non-point sources of pollution and physical disturbances. The presence of few pollution-sensitive taxa such as(Leptophlebiidae and Philopotamidae), and some moderately-sensitive taxa like (Psephenidae) at site one, implies the upper section was not as polluted as the downstream sections. Comparisons of sites with selected benthic invertebrate indices reflect increasing level of ecological degradation of the river that requires management actions.Comprehensive and long term study may be required tounderstandfactors impacting the river.

Cite this article as: Lammessa Berisa, Aschalew Lakew, Alemayehu Negassa;  Assessment of The Ecological Health Status of River Berga Using Benthic Macroinvertebrates as Bioindicators, Ethiopia;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 09-17

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 6
Sagar Ghimire, Santosh Marahatta, Dinesh Marasini, Natasha Bhattarai
Volume 2, Issue 6; June-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 01-08
Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate maize farming system, production constraints, present market situation and marketing constraints of maize crop in Gorkha district. Maize growers were purposively selected, 75 samples were taken through simple random sampling and data collected from the semi-structured questionnaire and were analyzed using MS Excel and SPSS. The maize yield was normally distributed and was categorized into three categories: high, medium and low. The average household size was found to be 5.4, 61% of the household member were economically active and around 66% of the economically active population was involved in agriculture. The average land holding was 0.85 ha where 63% of the total land holding was used for maize cultivation. The livestock standard unit (LSU) was highest for the low yield category farmers. On an average seed rate used was 38.45 kg ha-1. The average urea application rate in the study area was only 20 kg ha-1. The major problem of production was hailstorm and the major problem of marketing was lack of marketing knowledge. The total cost of production was highest for low yield category farmers. The average yield of maize in the study area was 3.85 ton ha-1 with the benefit cost ratio of 1.18.

Cite this article as: Sagar Ghimire, Santosh Marahatta, Dinesh Marasini, Natasha Bhattarai;  Characterization of Maize Production System of Gorkha, Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(6) : 01-08

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