North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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July 2019


  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Namwanga Damalie, Akuei Daniel
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 239-271; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3357228
Abstract: This study explored the validity of the twin deficit hypothesis in Uganda for the period 1980-2017. The methodology involved employing the Johansen co-integration test to find out whether there exists a long run link among variables current account deficit, fiscal deficit, RGDP, lending Interest rate and real effective exchange rate. The VECM is used to check how stable is the long run link between the variables while the granger causality test was done to conclude the direction of causality between current account deficit and fiscal deficit. The result confirms a long run link between all variables and we supported the Twin Divergence Hypothesis (TDivH) in Uganda since, VECM empirical results propose that fiscal deficit is negatively linked with current account deficit both in short run and long run and this is statistically significant at 5% level with a reasonably high speed of adjustment towards equilibrium. Increase in fiscal deficits improve current account deficits however granger causality test result show that causality is reversed running from current account deficit to the budget deficit. Policy initiatives should be directed towards improving current account deficit through value addition to Agriculture products exported in order to increase foreign exchange earnings. Additionally, maintaining a conducive Marco-economic environment is essential, strengthening external policies, expanding employment generating projects, improving domestic infrastructure inform of roads, electricity supply, and proper storage facilities for agriculture products will further improve domestic production and minimize on massive importation of consumer goods that can be locally produced. If these policies are well implemented, current account deficit balance will improve. Lastly the government of Uganda needs to minimize on excessive non-development expenditures especially in political administrations that in most cases over use tax payers money with no or less profit.

Cite this article as: Namwanga Damalie, Akuei Daniel;  The Twin Deficit Hypothesis: An Empirical Analysis for Uganda;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 239-271; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3357228

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Dr. Phyu Phyu Thein, Aye Myat Thu
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 227-238; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3349839
Abstract: Today's world is infested with many evil deeds. This paper is presented with the aim of studying why there are numerous evil deeds. Of the various kinds of evil deeds, some evil deeds are committed on account of using intoxicating drinks and drugs because even a soft minded person does not hesitate to commit evil deeds such as telling lies, stealing other's property, killing life, etc.

Cite this article as: Dr. Phyu Phyu Thein, Aye Myat Thu;  The Act of Taking Intoxicant from Buddhist Perspective;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 227-238; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3349839

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Aye Myat Thu, Phyu Phyu Thein, Ni Ni Win
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 218-226; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3349771
Abstract: Doing a favour means giving assistance bodily, verbally or materially when one is in need. Regarding gratitude, there are two kinds of persons, namely, a person who is in the habit of doing a favour and a person who is in the habit of requiting a favour as he knows the debt of gratitude he owes. Moreover, regarding requiting a favour, there is one who does not requite gratitude although he is aware of the other’s gratitude. There can be a person who does not only know the favour done to him but also he requites that favour. There can be person who not only recognizes the other’s favour but also he does not requite the debt of gratitude. In this paper, the persons who particularly know the gratitude of the other and the benefits acquired as a result of requital of the gratitude, the persons who are ungrateful and the advantages experienced as a result of ingratitude will be drawn from the Buddha’s Teachings and presented.

Cite this article as: Aye Myat Thu, Phyu Phyu Thein, Ni Ni Win;  The Important Role of Gratitude in Human Society from Buddhist Perspective;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 218-226; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3349771

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Afshan Zareen, Farzana Akter, Shamima Sarker, Rasnatun Ferdous, Moyinul Islam, Suraiya Sultana, Md Mehedi Hasan Rubel
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 209-217; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3348382
Abstract: : Garments washing is a significant part of garments industry and it’s mainly applied on denim garments. It is provided with a lucrative and classy outlook by chemical or wet washing process and mechanical or dry washing process. The most widely used dry washing process for garments are scraping, sparing, whickering, damage, rubbing to develop a new look and effect. This paper deals with three types of washing (Enzyme, Acid, Bleach) effects on denim fabric .Typical industrial washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physic-mechanical properties were analyzed under standard condition .This study will give an indication of the effect of different washing method by changing physical and chemical properties also imparting desired effect on garments.

Cite this article as: Afshan Zareen, Farzana Akter, Shamima Sarker, Rasnatun Ferdous, Moyinul Islam, Suraiya Sultana, Md Mehedi Hasan Rubel;  Washing Effects Investigation on Physical Properties of Denim Fabric;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 209-217; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3348382

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Nazneen Fatema , Abu Bakkar Siddik, Abdullah Mohammed Ibrahim
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 190-208; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3344973
Abstract: The study investigates the relative technical efficiency and productivity change of Bangladeshi commercial banks during the period 2013 to 2017. We utilize the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique to evaluate the efficiency of sample banks and The Malmquist productivity index (MPI) to assess the productivity expands of banks over time. The empirical results indicate that listed commercial banks in Bangladesh were technically inefficient. We discover that there are only six banks which have been technically efficient, while rests of the sample banks are classified as technically inefficient. The study also illustrates that only 3 among the 19 banks employed in this paper displayed an overall improvement in productivity and sixteen banks presented an overall decline in productivity. The outcomes form this study are anticipated to add notably toward resolution-making for controllers, lawmakers, bank managers, shareholders, and also to the existing information on technical efficiency and level of productivity of the Bangladesh banking area.

Cite this article as: Nazneen Fatema , Abu Bakkar Siddik, Abdullah Mohammed Ibrahim;  Efficiency and Productivity of Commercial Banks: Evidence from Bangladesh;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 190-208; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3344973

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Arrafy Rahman, Md. Ahasun Habib, Muhammad Abdul Hannan, Jyoti Sikder, Most. Khalida Jinnath
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 177-189; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3344759
Abstract: A surgical site infection (SSI) is an infection of a wound from a surgery. It is a global problem in the field of surgery associated with long hospital stay, higher treatment expenditure, morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of post-surgical wound infection with several socio-demographic factors including gender, age group and occupation as well as some clinical factors like – duration of hospital stay, surgery performed and the comorbidities of the respondents. Methodology and Results: This cross sectional study involved 250 patients suffering from post-surgical wound infection as respondents and the culture sensitivity tests of bacterial isolates obtained from pus samples. The study was conducted from June 2017 to May2018. Data regarding the patient’s age, gender, occupation, surgery performed, duration of hospital stay and comorbidity was documented using a standard questionnaire. Male patients suffered from post-surgical wound infection more (68.2%) than female patients (31.8%). Patients aged from 51 to 60 years old were more affected (21.5%) than the patients of other age groups. According to this study, employees were at higher risk (20.5%) compared to people from other occupations. Post-surgical wound infection was more frequently observed in the patients who went for hand surgery in burn unit (17.9%). Intensive occurrence of this type of infection was found in the patients who stayed in the hospital from 11 to 20 days (35.4%). Statistically significant correlation (p<0.05) was observed in case of age group and duration of hospital stay. Conclusion and Significance: This study will help the public to become more conscious about surgical site infection and help them to maintain good health and hygienic environment everywhere. This study will also assist the clinicians to select appropriate therapeutic measures for particular patients.

Cite this article as: Arrafy Rahman, Md. Ahasun Habib, Muhammad Abdul Hannan, Jyoti Sikder, Most. Khalida Jinnath;  Investigation of the Association of Surgical Site Infection with Socio demographic Factors and Clinical Factors;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 177-189; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3344759

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Shwe Sin Win, Phyu Phyu Tun, Seinn Lei Lei Phyu
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 165-176; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3334951
Abstract: This study deals with the preparation of seasoning powder from the two sources of vegetables: sweet potato and pumpkin. Vegetable seasoning powder can be used to enhance the taste and flavor of cooking. The nutritional value of as prepared seasoning powders such as moisture, ash, protein, fat and fiber contents were determined and compared with literature value. The shelf life of prepared samples was also studied. The studied shows that the nutritional values are comparable with literature value. The most suitable shelf life of the prepared sample is four months.

Cite this article as: Shwe Sin Win, Phyu Phyu Tun, Seinn Lei Lei Phyu;  A Study on the preparation method and characterization of seasoning powder;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 165-176; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3334951

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Parimal Kumar Roy, Jahid Siraz
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 154-164; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3334947
Abstract: Without foundations training, no officials will undergo training, which is mandated by the Bangladesh PublicAdministrationTrainingCenter(BPATC).Foundation Training Courses 64th& 65th batches as well as lady trainees, were chosen who had children and who were aged 1to3years, while participating in a course; basically 25 female participants were deliberately taken to describe the abovementioned titles, "Lady trainee with the baby: BPATC case study."The average age of the mother trainees is 29.23years, and the average age of the child is 15.28 months.As a public training institution, offering customers the facilities, the baby care center has been studied and the recommendations will contribute to the extension of the baby care center.To write this paper, a questionnaire was conducted in open and close form and two FGDs were conducted to search for clear concepts on the associated subjects.BPATC runs a baby care center to provide the facilities for lady trainees who, however, do not want to stay behind in comparison with their fellow trainees.To overcome the inconveniences of the mother trainee, BPATC has made such a huge effort and is never judged by the beneficiaries. The position of baby care center has been disclosed in this paper in the eye of the service recipient.What are the perceptions of BPATC, the baby care center and the course, were determined by interviews during the course. In addition, to validate the data, contact them by telephone. However, this number of customers is limited.In addition, the lessons learned will take steps to upgrade the services and help others to establish a childcare facility.

Cite this article as: Parimal Kumar Roy, Jahid Siraz;  Lady Trainees with Baby in FTC: A Case Study of BPATC;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 154-164; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3334947

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Uchenna Collins Agbarakwe, Marcellia Susan
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 133-153; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3334909
Abstract: Technology needs, especially smartphones, are now very huge; it cannot be denied that many smartphone brands compete with each other to get the highest market share. Overall, several well-known brands such as Samsung, Xiaomi and Oppo are the top three smartphone brands that are most widely used in Indonesia, but there is one smartphone that, although it has a market share not as big as the three brands, is considered the most exclusive because the market is only for a certain group of people who understands the brand, the Apple iPhone. The purpose of this research is to find out whether the brand concept possessed by the Apple iPhone can impact customer commitment, because it is known that the Apple iPhone users tend to continue to use the same iPhone brand, despite other competing brands in the same product category.The research method used is the descriptive research method with a quantitative approach, whereby the population is the Apple iPhone users in the city of Bandung. Data collection is by questionnaires, interviews and observations, while the data analysis technique uses descriptive analysis and also multiple linear regression analysis.The results showed that brand concept dimensions consisting of aesthetic benefits, functional benefits and symbolic benefits had a significant influence in shaping customer commitment. As for the three dimensions of the brand concept, it is known that symbolic benefits have the strongest impact on customer commitment compared to the other two dimensions.

Cite this article as: Uchenna Collins Agbarakwe, Marcellia Susan;  The Impact of Brand Concept Dimensions on Customer Commitment (A survey of Apple iPhone Users in Bandung, Indonesia);  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 133-153; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3334909

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Mohammad Nazim Ud Dowla Khan
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 122-132; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3333733
Abstract: Studies on women entrepreneurship have witnessed a rapid growth over the past 30 years. The field is in an adolescence stage with a considerable number of journal articles, literature reviews and books being published on women entrepreneurs. The objective of this study is two fold. First is to examine the number of papers published on women entrepreneurship in 12 established entrepreneurship journals from 1900 to 2016. Second is to assess the growth of the field by specifically reviewing literature reviews published from 1980s till 2016 and put forward future research directions. Our review findings suggest that there is still a long way to go in terms of building a strong theoretical base for research on women entrepreneurship. The lens of feminist theories can be applied in conjunction with the existing entrepreneurship theories to advance the field. Methodologically, past research is dominated by the positivist paradigm and there is a need to embrace innovative methods to build explanations using a constructionist approach. Further, studies are mostly restricted within national boundaries primarily being conducted in developed economies. There is a need to build transnational networks and foster professional communities to enable the growth of the field.

Cite this article as: Mohammad Nazim Ud Dowla Khan;  Obstacles for Women Entrepreneurs in Bangladesh;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 122-132; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3333733

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Qurat-ul-ain Shaikh, Shehbaz Ali Mallah
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 111-121; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3270966
Abstract: In nanoscience, there had a wild place of Nanoparticles, because of their Nanostructure, complex reactivity and solidity. In this work we have circled the Importance of Nanoparticles in our daily life and their routine synthesis in laboratories, but also discuss the extended (Green) method for synthesis of Nanoparticles which were approachable to the environment. By acquainting with different methodologies for the characterization of Nanoparticles and their applications in field of Nanoworld has discussed.

Cite this article as: Qurat-ul-ain Shaikh, Shehbaz Ali Mallah;  Importance of Nanoparticles, Synthesis, Characterization and its Applications in the New Era of Research;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 111-121; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3270966

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
M. Ratna, R. Sarker, M.Z. Ali, R. Ara,M.M. Rahman, M.M. kamrozzaman
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 104-110; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3270929
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Spices Research Sub-Centre, Faridpur during rabi season, 2016-17 to find out the proper harvesting stage of fennel both for chewing and seed purpose and to assure best quality fennel both for chewing and seed purpose. The experimental field belongs to high land of Low Ganges River Floodplain (AEZ 12) with clay loam in texture. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The experiment comprised of seven harvesting stage viz. 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 days after flowering. The results revealed that different treatments had significant effect on yield and quality attributes of fennel seed. The fennel umbels which were harvested at 35 days after flowering (DAF) were superior to rest of the harvesting stages and recorded maximum sensory Scores and good for chewing quality fennel with seed yield of 1.32t/ha. However, for obtaining maximum seed yield (1.82 t/ha) umbel/seed should be harvested/picked after 45DAF or 50 DAF.

Cite this article as: M. Ratna, R. Sarker, M.Z. Ali, R. Ara,M.M. Rahman, M.M. kamrozzaman;  Effect of Harvesting Time for Quality Seed Yield of Fennel;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 104-110; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3270929

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Hafsa Iqbal, Alam Zeb Khattak
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 91-103; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3270712
Abstract: The current study was conducted to find out the level of depression and self- esteem among the preoperative and postoperative. Level of self-esteem and depression among post operative (mastectomy and lumpectomy) were also investigated. Method: The cross-sectional study was conducted at Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine (IRNUM) at the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Peshawar. 120 sample of breast cancer were selected. 60 were preoperative and 60 were postoperative breast cancer patients. Their age ranges from 26 years to 55 years. Purposive sampling technique was used in the study. Urdu version of self-esteem scale (1999) and Depression scales were used (1992). SPSS 21 version was used for data analysis. Results: It was hypothesized in the study that there is a significant negative correlation between self-esteem and depression in preoperative and postoperative Breast Cancer. The results also shows the negative correlation amongst self–esteem and depression in lumpectomy and mastectomy Breast Cancer patients. Conclusion: it was concluded that there is no significant difference between the degree of depression and self-esteem in preoperative, postoperative, mastectomy and lumpectomy patients.

Cite this article as: Hafsa Iqbal, Alam Zeb Khattak;  Depression and Self-Esteem Among Preoperative and Postoperative Breast Cancer Patients in Peshawar;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 91-103; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3270712

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Dovdanov Dovletgeldi, Zhen Dao Wen
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 76-89; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3268238
Abstract: As China's economy has extended, so has its requirement for vitality. Subsequently, China has expanded its local vitality limits and created import procedures for oil and gas. In its global vitality exercises, China has advanced through an arrangement of stages. The reason for this paper is to concentrate on China's most recent stage: making an overland vitality organize, provided fundamentally by Turkmenistan and turning into the vitality center point of an incorporated Asian market – China's later "Silk Road" proposition. This paper additionally inspects the effect of Chinese vitality ventures on the possibilities of Central Asian vitality makers progressing to developing markets.

Cite this article as: Dovdanov Dovletgeldi, Zhen Dao Wen;  Research on Energy Trade Between China and Turkmenistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 76-89; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3268238

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Shahinoor Rahman, Morshadul Hasan
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 66-83; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3267976
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to present a scientific and logical analysis which will help to evaluate and compare the financial performance of six state-owned commercial banks in Bangladesh named Sonali Bank Limited, Rupali Bank Limited, Agrani Bank Limited, Janata Bank Limited, BASIC Bank Limited and Bangladesh Development Bank Limited (BDBL). In this regard, this research work is divided into two parts- first one is; Evaluation of the financial performance of six state-owned commercial banks in Bangladesh, and the second one is Compare the financial performance of the six state-owned commercial banks in Bangladesh and identifying the factors liable for their better or poor performance. Literally, the banking industry plays an important role in the development of the Bangladesh economy. But the present performance of the banking sector is not satisfactory. They are crushed with lots of crises which are pushing them into destruction. So, it is very important to appraise their use of assets, treatment of liabilities, income, revenue and contribution, and distribution of owner’s equity. By analyzing the financial performance, the banks are ranked according to their performance, and the factors are determined, which are influenced by their performance and are responsible for their better or poor performance. To make an evaluation of the financial performance, Growth rate, average, and different statistical methods. These are the two steps of this study. In this report, secondary data is used, and the sources of information will be acquired from the Annual Reports of the banks from the year 2013-2017 and their websites. I hope this research paper will help the investors, creditors, governance body, managers, and all other stakeholders for rational decision making about these banks.

Cite this article as: Shahinoor Rahman, Morshadul Hasan;  Performance Evaluation and Present trend analysis of State Owned Commercial Banks: An Empirical Study of Bangladesh;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 66-83; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3267976

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Tam Nguyen Thi Minh,Hassan Bashir
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 11-28; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3265401
Abstract: Increased urbanization in Vietnam disturbing land use efficiency related to natural resources and quality of human life and development. Therefore, land use efficiency become an inherent requirement under growing population and land resources for national and regional sustainable development. This study presents an evaluation of land use efficiency in Vietnam using DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) and Super-Efficiency DEA model. In general, Vietnam land use efficiency is low, only 8 among 63 provinces have high land use efficiency. The results show that Super-efficiency DEA model can effectively rank the efficiency DMU completely, by thatHo Chi Minh City tops the list of land use efficiency of Vietnam in 2017, followed by Ba Ria-Vung-Tau, BacNinh, NinhThuan, Da Nang, Vinh Long, AnGiang and Lai Chau. NgheAn andThanhHoa, the two largest provinces of Vietnam located get the lowest land use efficiency value. There is no certain relation between the efficiency of land use and the grade of the province. This study may provide a reference for the decision maker in land use planning to get high efficiency and sustainable land resources.

Cite this article as: Tam Nguyen Thi Minh,Hassan Bashir;  Estimation Evaluation Land Use Efficiency by DEA Model-Case Study in Vietnam;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 11-28; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3265401

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 7
Sharmila Pokharel
2, Issue 7; July-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 01-10; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3265391
Abstract: Male involvement in antenatal care (ANC) is an operative approach for improving maternal health results. Though women are sole child producers, the participation of men in financial support and other decision making cannot be out looked. This study reviewed different papers from different study area to analyze the involvement of male partner in antenatal care in Nepal. This study used various literatures all over the country. The analysis of the literature review provided some ideas which led in the identification of some important factors like involvement of male in birth preparedness, financial support, birth companionship, decision making for pregnancy and delivery, responsibility for house and children in the absence of female counterparts, etc. As men play an important role in birth preparedness which points towards economic and emotional support, despite the participation of male during birth preparedness is prohibited in some cultures. So, men should be provided with adequate knowledge and information regarding the need of a woman during pregnancy and provide adequate support and involvement during antenatal care. So, this review recommends to take more efforts to provide education to the community to boost the male participation in ANC to improve the women’s health and child safety uprooting the prohibitions in cultural background.

Cite this article as: Sharmila Pokharel;  A review on factor influencing the involvement of male partner in antenatal care in Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(7) : 01-10; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3265391

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