North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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January 2021


  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Aklima Akter, Sarah Tabassum
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 259-273, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4526455
Abstract: To improve upon a school to its desired manner, the head teacher needs to take the leadership role and gather a lot of knowledge and develop some skills. Relating it, this study was conducted in qualitative approach with the view to exploring the challenges and possibilities of implementing leadership training of head teachers of primary schools. Through conducting four interviews and one FGD data was collected, which showed that due to some challenges of training providers and the participant head teachers the training could not be implemented in proper way. The head teacher and the local education authority need to take the leadership role to implement the training knowledge and skills in the schools to improve the desired results.

Cite this article as: Aklima Akter, Sarah Tabassum;  Exploring Head Teachers’ Leadership Training in Government Primary School of Dhaka City: Challenges and Possibilities for Implementation;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 259-273, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4526455

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Bemini Nimibofa Paul
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 226-258, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4511316
Abstract: It is generally acknowledged that global commerce depends largely on carriage by sea because of its cost-effectiveness. However, the risks involved are posing very serious challenges. In this context, risk reduction or risk transfer mechanism is an imperative, hence marine insurance. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to appraise the principles guiding marine insurance and their relevance in contemporary times in view of present day commerce in relation to technological advancement. This study uses both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources are statutes and decided cases. The secondary sources are books, journals and internet sources. All materials used are subjected to context analysis. The study observed that the extant law have been comparatively effective despite the fact that marine insurance has a great deal of international flavour. However, the study has also observed that some of the provisions in some of the principle shaping marine insurance are weighing more on the policy holders than the underwriters in the balance of justice. The study further identified some of the principles of marine insurance obsolete vis-à-vis modern information technology and are already rendered like toothless bull dogs in the extant law either by virtue of legislative intervention or judicial activism or both. Therefore, the study concludes that the extant law should be amended to accommodate the realities of modern day commercial activities as well remove or further moderate any provision that will enhance imbalance in relation to justice, since law is the basis of justice.

Cite this article as: Bemini Nimibofa Paul;  An Appraisal of the Principles of Marine Insurance;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 226-258, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4511316

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Yao Justin Bossou , Sun Qigui , Glory George-Ufot , Victor Bondzie-Micah , Nadège Muhimpundu
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 209-225, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4479730
Abstract: Interaction between patients and healthcare providers, intimate contact, and information sharing have suggested being as essential determinants in medical care services delivery. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of patient-centered communication (PCC) on patient trust, and patient satisfaction from an interpersonalbased medical service encounters perspective. A structural equation modeling analysis conducted on a dataset of 355 respondents from an online survey filled by outpatients in Togo showed that PCC has a significant positive indirect effect on patient satisfaction through interpersonal-based medical service encounters (b=0.295) and patient trust (b=0.198). Therefore, implying a full significant mediation of interpersonal-based medical service encounters and patient trust between PCC and patient satisfaction. Results from this study highlighted the significance of having healthcare providers that are well trained in PCC and highly motivated to build patient-provider rapport to improve their patient's satisfaction and healthcare experience.

Cite this article as: Yao Justin Bossou , Sun Qigui , Glory George-Ufot , Victor Bondzie-Micah , Nadège Muhimpundu;  The Effect of Patient-Centered Communication on Patient Satisfaction: Exploring the Mediating Roles of Interpersonal-based Medical Service Encounters and Patient Trust;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 209-225, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4479730

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Sada Hussain Shah
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 200-208, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4478962
Abstract: Thousands of development projects are being implemented by hundreds of organizations around the world in each year. Hitherto, only Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) and United Nations (UN) agencies were implementing such projects for community development. Nowadays, academia and government departments are also focusing on implementing community development projects. Hence, these smart projects are supposed to give more results as compare to programs implemented intermittently. All these projects are more or less evaluated by different organizations and individuals with the purpose to provide pieces of evidence for learning and sharing to extrapolate further. Hence, instead of will these evaluations are less likely to be extrapolated into project design henceforth. There could be many gaps to hinder this consecutive learning and adaptation of retrospective literature in project designing. One key gap is structuring and communicating evaluation evidence. Under project evaluation, we often follow cross sectional or longitudinal approaches and apply mixed methods research. Data collection tools are developed based on themes of study. These study themes further guide for data collection and analysis. Hence, under evaluation our focus is to study the status of project against set indicators. Therefore, thematic analysis doesn’t help us too much to be specific at the level of indicators. That means there is a problem in setting our research results and embarking our journey on a road. Hence, we are not supposed to change the intended results. Therefore, we need to change the road Hence, the discourse of project management has commenced journey towards result based monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, it is important to establish methodologies for Result Based Impact Evaluation (RBIE). Under the theoretical domains of operational research and social survey. To set the architecture for result based evaluation it is pivotal to set analytical focus on project’s result indicators. Hence, while conducting simple thematic analysis evaluators often forgo analyzing a project’s result indicators. Therefore, this experimental work aims to depict a research trajectory for evaluators. To go down narrow from simple thematic analysis to Indicators Based Analysis (IBA). That would probably serve their purpose to get desired research outcome by following sophisticated methodology. This research paper is developed to guide result based impact evaluations of development projects based on nonfragile evidence collected through rigorous desk and field work. This is also a literary effort to develop research nexus between academia and the development sector. This work suggests why and how evaluators would move from simple thematic analysis to indicators based analysis. How to plan, conduct and present indicators based analysis for result based impact evaluation, and why it is necessary. This paper aims to develop a lexicon to justify methodological process for conducting RBIE using IBA, under the domain of social research and survey. This is an effort to develop nexus or coherences among evaluation, social research, and social survey.

Cite this article as: Sada Hussain Shah;  Indicators Based Analysis to Conduct Result Based Impact Evaluation: An Innovation in Field of Evaluation;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 200-208, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4478962

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Muhibullah Hedayat , Mohammad Abrar Rahimi , Khitabullah Khitab
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 147-169, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4474785
Abstract: Islam is over 1,441 years old, the Muslim population represents approximately 23% of the world's population with a majority of Muslims living in 50 countries throughout the world [1]. Consequently, the Muslims are the second biggest religious group in the world. In many countries of the Middle East, Africa, and Asia, it is the prevailing faith, and some Muslim minority groups are also found in the rest of the world. A universal religion that embraces every kind of nationality of the world, and makes absolutely no discrimination because of gender, color, race, or ethnicity, is Islam. We must not conflate ethnicity with Islam.

Cite this article as: Muhibullah Hedayat , Mohammad Abrar Rahimi , Khitabullah Khitab;  Ethical and Legal Rights of Psychiatric Patients in Islam;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 147-169, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4474785

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Ahmadullah kargar
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 191-199, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4468199
Abstract: Comparison of Pashto and Dari noun cases is syntactical issue which is just belong to Pashto and Dari official languages of Afghanistan. The study used qualitative descriptive method to find out similarities and difference in noun cases of Pashto and Dari languages. The result of this study showed that both languages has differences in noun cases. In addition, the result also elucidated that in Pashto language nominative, vocative and little bit accusative case are alive which are real oblique cases and the other cases are appearing by the support of some preposition and postposition. On the other hand, without vocative case, Dari language also appear noun cases by the aid of some preposition and postposition.

Cite this article as: Ahmadullah kargar;  Comparison of Pashto and Dari Noun Cases;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 191-199, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4468199

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Saddam Raweh Ahmed Abdullah Al-hammadi , Yongzhi Liang
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 179-190, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4460328
Abstract: This paper tends to the issue of distinguishing changes in the movement of a far off gas source from the reaction of a variety of Methane Gas sensors sent in an Open Sampling System (OSS). Changes can happen because of gas source movement, for example, an unexpected adjustment in fixation or because of introduction to an alternate compound. Applications, for example, gas-spill identification in mines or enormous scope contamination observing can profit by solid change location calculations, particularly where it is illogical to constantly store or move sensor readings, or where dependable alignment is hard to accomplish. Here, it is alluring to recognize a change point demonstrating a critical occasion, for example presence of gas or an abrupt change in focus. The fundamental difficulties are tempestuous scattering of gas and the moderate reaction and recuperation seasons of Methane gas sensors. Because of these difficulties, the gas sensor reaction shows vacillations that meddle with the progressions of intrigue. The commitments of this proposition are focused on creating change detection strategies utilizing Methane gas sensor reactions. To start with, we apply the Generalized Likelihood Ratio calculation (GLR), a usually utilized strategy that doesn't make any from the earlier presumption about change occasions. Next, we propose TRE-FEX, a novel change point recognition calculation, which models the reaction of Methane GAS sensors as a piecewise exponential sign and thinks about the intersections between successive exponentials as change focuses. We additionally propose the rTREFEX calculation as an augmentation of TREFEX. The center thought behind rTREFEX is an endeavor to improve the fitted exponentials of TREFEX by limiting the quantity of exponentials considerably further.

Cite this article as: Saddam Raweh Ahmed Abdullah Al-hammadi , Yongzhi Liang;  A Study on Algorithm of Infrared Methane Gas Sensor Signals on Open Sampling Systems;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 179-190, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4460328

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Mr. Pisith SOK
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 107-127, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459452
Abstract: Pepper is one of Cambodia’s main crop exports. It has been significant growth of production in hectares (ha) and metric tons (MT) and got GI status from EU markets but markets access and value adding of the produce remain a constraint for small growers, as Cambodian pepper heavily relies on Vietnam and Thailand markets particularly Tboung Khmum (TK) pepper. On the other hand, local processors still struggle with modern machineries to process pepper into other forms (ground pepper, oil, oleoresin or medicine) and high competition with Vietnamese collectors for buying peppercorns. By using SWOT analysis, quantitative and qualitative statistics, this study explores the dynamic market opportunities for pepper value chains (PVC) development in Cambodia to maximize value chains (VC) actors’ benefits and enabling business environment for investors. The study reveals that European (EU) markets, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, and the U.S are potential markets for Cambodian pepper exporting. Kampot (KP) pepper is identified as the taste of heritage and gets geographical indicator (GI) status from EU countries. Furthermore, contract farming (FC), (GI), and organic status are important factors for Cambodian pepper to target high value markets (premium price). By analysing SWOT tool shows that the strengths and opportunities are outweigh its weaknesses and threats particularly it is potential for investments and foreign direct investments (FDIs). The study found that challenges in the PVC such as limited planted areas (many small growers), shortage of processing techniques, lack of understanding market requirements, informal export to neighbouring countries (VN, TH), high interest rate of loans, and counterfeit on the name of Kampot pepper. To deal with these constraints, some solutions need to be addressed include expanding planted areas, improve productivity (KP pepper), enhance pepper quality (TK pepper), reduce dependency on Vietnam (grey market), more focus on end-user exporting markets, CF and organic status, strictly control licenses (GI & Organic), technology upgrading, diversify peppers, improve delivery system, and build brand equity. In addition, this research also found that peppers in Cambodia are potential for export oriented, investments, and reduce poverty. Finally, VC analysis tool plays a crucial role to identify all the factors and actors of the pepper industry in the country. Pepper is identified as the king of spices and one among the cash crop agricultural commodities of trade. It is valued as an ingredient for food cooking and as a spice. Cambodia is one of the largest pepper producers in South East Asia (SEA). Pepper is a climbing vine grown for its berries extensively used as spice and medicine. Pepper is considered the oldest agricultural commodity that is traded worldwide.

Cite this article as: Mr. Pisith SOK;  An Analysis of Pepper (Piper Nigrum) Value Chains in Cambodia;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 107-127, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459452

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Imran Zafarzai , Ahmad Shakib Zalmai
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 170-178, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.4459899
Abstract: This study investigates violence against women in Nangarhar, Afghanistan. It is general consideration that women are more vulnerable towards violence in patriarchal society. The fundamental aim of present study is to find out the major obstacles that women face and creating awareness about various types of violence. To analyze violence, a frame work was developed. Data was collected through interviews from 900 women from urban and rural areas of four districts of Nangarhar Province: Jalalabad, Behsood, Batikot, and Shinwari in the year 2019. Various aspects of Life were interviewed through a well-structured questionnaire, especially the demographics, ways of violence, level of violence and factors which are related to violence. This study provides concise description of the overall scenario of violence against women (VAW) in Nangarhar, Afghanistan. This study is helpful for the policy makers in a way that they understand the nature and severity of violence against women and make some strategies to help them out for a prosperous and better life.

Cite this article as: Imran Zafarzai , Ahmad Shakib Zalmai;  Violence Against Women in Afghanistan: A Case of Nangarhar;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 170-178, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.4459899

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Ahmad Shakib Zalmai , Aimal Amiri
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 138-146, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459873
Abstract: Premeditated throwing of acid on any body part of victim is known as acid attack. It is basically an ominous crime committed truly against women. It can result in number of clinical; Severe pain, permanent disfigurement, subsequent infections and blindness as well as psychological consequences. Current study was conducted to explore the clinical and psychological aspects of acid attack across the globe including Afghanistan. The fundamental aim of the study is to explore the consequences of acid attack which are a serious threat to entire societies and specifically to Afghanistan. The present study also critically overview the literature keeping in view the cases in Afghanistan. The literature provides figures that more than 70% of acid attacks are due to rejection in love/refusal to marry or for such personal causes.

Cite this article as: Ahmad Shakib Zalmai , Aimal Amiri;  Acid Attack and Its Clinical and Psychological Effect;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 138-146, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459873

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Aimal Amiri , Imran Zafarzai
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 128-137, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459861
Abstract: Aside from the way that trust among specialists and patients is a wellspring of maintainable relations, influencing the conduct of the two players, it additionally has its remedial worth. In this study, a sociological perspective of trust has been investigated in Nangarhar Province. Doctors’ way of understanding trust, nature of trust and complexity of trust was evaluated by direct response of patients. For accomplishment of research objective, data was collected from 200 individuals in Nangarhar Province, who recently availed health services for self or family. Content analysis is used for the research purpose. On the basis of collected responses in Nangarhar Province, it is clear that health care system number of significant changes occur in last 5 to 10 years. This paper means to develop a model of trust in the specialists’ quiet relationship, dependent on subjective exploration; investigation of the substance of internet message sheets. The investigation uncovered that trust towards specialists is an aftereffect of covering and interpenetration of two degrees of trust: macro-scale and meso-scale. Macro-scale trust can be viewed as a setting in which all the components of institutional trust are inserted. Though meso-trust (institutional) is portrayed as far as three measurements: altruism, fitness and respectability. Results also indicated that trust in a doctor-patient relationship is a social, complex and multi-dimensional phenomenon. Actions taken within just one of the dimensions will not yield expected outcome. On the other hand, however, any attempts at improving the situation will trigger a synergy effect to infuse the relation between doctor and patient with multitier trust, thus making it more effective, and in the long term, more efficient. Keywords: DOCTOR, PATIENT

Cite this article as: Aimal Amiri , Imran Zafarzai;  A Study on Doctor-Patient Relationship in Nangarhar: The Role of Trust;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 128-137, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4459861

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Kashif Ali Shah , Nawal Asif , Mukhtiar Hussain Ibupoto
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 58-63, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4441625
Abstract: We humans are habitual of classifying things by nature, we use to set boundaries and circles and classified thing according to our selfestablished socially built boundaries, our classification is not only for other things but we have classified ourselves too, we human along with all other species are divided into two categories male and female on the basis of our sex by the nature. We have also socially classified ourselves into two categories man and woman, social categories are knows as gender assigned by society. But there are many people who don’t fit in any of two categories made by both nature and society. This study is all about those marginalized and suppressed people, whom we all consider as an object of amusement and hurl ugly comments to them. Through this study I have tried to analyze and understand the biological and psychological variations which make them different from others, I have tried to explore their internal world, which was hidden earlier, I have lighten their occupations, their living style and their internal social structure along with their religious beliefs, I have changed all real names for the sake of their privacy. I hope this document will help readers to think again about the third gender community and provide guidance for future researchers who they want to explore this extra ordinary sub-society with its unique culture.

Cite this article as: Kashif Ali Shah , Nawal Asif , Mukhtiar Hussain Ibupoto;  Ethnographic Study of Third Gender Community at Karachi City of Sindh-Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 58-63, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4441625

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Maha Raja Dahar , Muhammad Ali Ghoto , Abdullah Dayo , YU Lushan , Naheed Memon , Javaria Sundus
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 97-106, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4448390
Abstract: This study gives brief scientific findings on high alert medications, that these types of medicines are very sensitive in sense of usage because of their low therapeutic windows (Zyoud et al., 2019), (Geeson et al., 2020), (Salman et al., 2020). Whether it is scientifically proved that if these medications are used in a little lower dose than their recommended doses, they can’t produce therapeutic effects. This scientific study has pursued the ‘Descriptive Study’ method and carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, through reviewing patient’s medication profiles of those patients which were admitted in different wards including general Pediatric ward, High Dependency Unit (HDU), ICU, total duration for this study was five months. The study has proved, if the high medication medicine’s doses will increase even some instant from the recommended therapeutic doses, it will cause toxic effects, and they will have more chances to produce adverse drug events, and it will definitely be life-threatening to target patients. Also, it has been found that in Pakistani hospitals, these medications are being used in very critical areas of the hospital, like, ICUs, HDUs, CCUs, NICUs. So, it needs to each organization, especially all categories of hospitals either they contain primary, secondary, or tertiary care set-up, essentially, they take initiatives to aware their health care professionals including Physicians, Consultants, Pharmacists, Nursing staff, whoever are involved in prescribing, dispensing, and administering these drugs respectively to the patients to keep control for the harmful events. Secondly, this study recognizing the clinical role of pharmacists inside the hospitals, it has studied many interventions harmful medications errors which are frequently prescribed on different events in studied hospitals. In this study, 200 patient profiles are evaluated in which 28 high alert medications being find prescribed. Though the study severely has found that in most cases of using the potassium chloride has also found, that was about 13.5%, which is ultimately a life-threatening event to patients under care. Thirdly, the study has evaluated, other 15 types of medication errors in the prescribed area, which has seen in the Wrong drug prescriptions as 6%, low dose 9%, high dose 11%. Though 18% of patient's profiles have been observed in which therapeutic drug level was even not monitored, and 6% of wrong units has prescribed! For 10% route of administration hasn't been mentioned, 5% of the profiles in which the route of administration has to find wrongly prescribed. 7% of unnecessary medications, and 10% of those profiles in which high alert medications have to find prescribed with the wrong dilution! Further, evaluations have found out that improper quantity of Diluent in 5% of profiles prescribed and Duplication of drugs has to find in 3%, Wrong frequency, 5%, and the Wrong Rate of Administration 3%. But no evidence has reported at which level drugs have reached at the patient’s end. With all these findings the study strongly emphasizes that these errors can be controlled only with the effective role of pharmacists, who always intervene with these types of medication errors. So, this study proves the role of pharmacists for better usage of High Alert Medications. The study recommends this role of Pharmacists in hospitals especially in Pakistan where mostly High Alert Medication Care Centers are running without proper pharmacy set-up. This study is helpful for medical practitioners, hospital organizations in developing countries to know the importance of clinical pharmacists in the management of High Alert Medications.

Cite this article as: Maha Raja Dahar , Muhammad Ali Ghoto , Abdullah Dayo , YU Lushan , Naheed Memon , Javaria Sundus;  Clinical Role of Pharmacists, To Overcome Medication Errors Related to High Alert Medication, Which Needs High Care from Prescribing to Doses Administration to The Patients;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 97-106, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4448390

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Khan Kimhuon
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 84-96, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4445506
Abstract: On the basis of the procedure, the Royal Government of Cambodia found many unique approaches to improve Cambodia. In this case, the labor force is an important part, and its impact on Cambodia with economic growth and will make Cambodia become an over-developed country in the future. The reason I chose this topic on the impact of labor force on Cambodia's economic growth is also based on the date. The data was collected from personal files and consists of the amounts described in the task of this document. The result of this process was that the original data did not significantly influence other people. When I read the article on Cambodia's workforce, I was personally surprised because Cambodia is a developing country, but the workforce is of good quality. Based on this, I was very interested in what other factors influence the workforce in Cambodia. The study uses panel data from 1994 to 2018. The review uses multiple regression analysis techniques to analyze the data. The data have been obtained from the World Development Indicator (WDI) database published by the World Bank. The result revealed that all the personal examinations shown in this report attest that the workforce effectively affects the financial development in Cambodia and, more essential, the commercial openings produced for the nearby population, which in the long term helps to decrease unemployment and homelessness in Cambodia

Cite this article as: Khan Kimhuon;  The impact of Labour Force on Cambodia GDP Growth;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 84-96, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4445506

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Azhar Ali, Shahid Hussain, Zaigham Ali, Zahoor Hussain , Syed Hussain Murtaza
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 64-83, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4443028
Abstract: Coordination is one of the significant components of the construction process. The owners, consultants and contractors struggle to coordinate adequately in massive construction projects whose success could be explain in terms of time, cost, quality and satisfaction. However, coordination factors are crucial in securing the successful accomplishment of all stages of the project. In this study, partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) methodology uses to indicate factors that lack of coordination badly affects the success of infrastructural projects. A conceptual model was developed for the evaluation of project success. The model comprises of two key latent factors. An empirical analysis to test the conceptual model was carried out through the questionnaire survey. The data collected from 246 building experts who were employed in the construction sector in Pakistan. The findings of the analysis showed that the model value was 0.625 which indicated that the lack of coordination had a main influence on project success. The communication-related factors (beta 0.246) have a greater effect on project success, based on the overall form of the model. The conceptual model GOF was calculated as 0.642 which showed the conceptual model validity and reliability, and the data matches correctly. The current study applies PLS-SEM which is previously missing in the literature; this provides additional insights to the array of knowledge in the construction industry that leads project managers to understand the lack of coordination and its impact on project success.

Cite this article as: Azhar Ali, Shahid Hussain, Zaigham Ali, Zahoor Hussain , Syed Hussain Murtaza;  Analyzing the Impact of Coordination Factors on Construction Project Success in Pakistan Using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 64-83, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4443028

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Pijus Paul Manab
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 31-38, Jan 2021,:https://doi.org/10.5281/z enodo.4435141
Abstract: Effective management and evaluation are essential for employees in an organization. A performance appraisal system needs to achieve the desired productivity of employee. Although a variety of factors are considered to support the performance appraisal system that impacts performance within the organization. Appropriate performance appraisals and appropriate influences from management for promotion will not delay employee productivity. Moreover, performance assessment is about the ability of an organization to develop its employees. On the other hand, communication plays an important role in multistage process of performance appraisal. However, recording additional information about staff assessment results, analysis and reporting is a process of performance appraisal in their work environment. In addition, performance appraisal; terms of examination and evaluation are often used in human resource management in most businesses. Also, Performance appraisals determine who needs to train and who should be promoted or fired. The organization uses management by objective as an essential method to achieve the goals and achieve the desired strategies and performance enhancements and capabilities. This case study follows a comprehensive critique of the current effective identification and performance appraisal system. The results of the analysis included in this study highlight the positive contribution of performance appraisal system to employee productivity. However, there are some practical recommendations to the management of Bengal Group for continuous improvement and gain the benefits from performance appraisal.

Cite this article as: Pijus Paul Manab;  Analysis of Performance Appraisal System to Evaluate the High Productivity of Employee: A Case Study on Bengal Group of Industries in Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 31-38, Jan 2021,:https://doi.org/10.5281/z enodo.4435141

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Muhammad Saqib , Sher Ali Khan , Javaria Sundus , Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 39-57, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo. 4437717
Abstract: This article discusses the situation of juvenile justice in Pakistan and the need for a detailed, concrete and efficient strategy to resolve the juvenile justice problems. As such, at present there is no juvenile justice policy in the country. Juvenile Justice System Ordinance 2000 is the only significant statute dealing with children in dispute with the legislation. The law is not properly implemented in the country, due to some practical difficulties. Pakistan has many good policies, often on paper, such as health policy, education policy, labor policy, and so on, but at national or provincial level we have neither a criminal justice policy nor a clear juvenile justice policy. This article discusses how the politics of criminal justice in Pakistan would look like. There is also discussion of all the legislation, legislation, statutes and rules that are binding on Pakistan defined by the national and international fora. The article further argues that although the courts have often issued contradictory judicial opinions, the increasing authority of the case law indicates a clear inclination of the courts to settle the matter, which is of great importance. This article discusses how the politics of criminal justice in Pakistan would look like. There is also discussion of all the legislation, legislation, statutes and rules that are binding on Pakistan defined by the national and international fora. The article further argues that although the courts have often issued contradictory judicial opinions, the increasing authority of the case law indicates a clear inclination of the courts to settle the matter, which is of great importance.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Saqib , Sher Ali Khan , Javaria Sundus , Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah;  Critical and Reformative Study of Juvenile Delinquency in Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 39-57, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo. 4437717

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Mostafa Hamdy El-Said Ahmed
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 17-30, Jan 2021,https://doi.org/10.5281 /zenodo.4433101
Abstract: In the paper, the Syrian conflict caused a direct effect on the Middle East and North African (MENA) Region. The attention on an escalation of tensions between Bashar al-Assad’s government and opposition as a source of civil war in Syria was paid. The internal and external factors were shown as main contractors in the conflicts. Also, The war has led to catastrophic consequences to the neighbouring countries like refuges crisis. The paper assessed the factors underlying the spillover and the consequence of the crisis especially the political and security consequences and its prospect on the region, This paper addressed the situation in Syria as a fragile state. Also will explore the factors that contributed to the spillover effect the Syrian Crisis, discuss the consequences of the conflict in the MENA region. Also, the paper will emphasize the reasons why the Syrian revolution failed and why Egyptian revolutions passed, in a comparison Syria with Egypt as a benchmark, and set implications to end the civil war in Syria. The paper recommends starting national reconciliation and dialogue among different political organizations under UN and Arab league mediation. Also, the paper recommends the future of conflict consequences.

Cite this article as: Mostafa Hamdy El-Said Ahmed;  The Impact of the Syrian Crisis on the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 17-30, Jan 2021,https://doi.org/10.5281 /zenodo.4433101

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  Volume: 4 Issue: 1
Javaria Sundus , Sindhu Abbasi , Sher Ali Khan , Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah
Vol 4, Issue 1; January 2021
North American Academic Research, 4(1) 01-16, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4429742
Abstract: Breast cancer was identified to be a malignant tumor that develops from cells of the breast. Breast cancer is also the primary cause of cancer death among women globally, causing approximately 375,000 deaths every year. A total of 85 persons took part in the survey and provided their views about breast cancer. 80% of the students / faculty of Hazara University were “aware” of breast cancer. 9.4% of individual surveyed had one of their parents suffering from cancer. 15.2% individual believed that the breast cancer can occur in both male and female. Majority of the individuals (81.2%) believed that breast cancer can occur only in female. 12.9% individual believed that breast cancer is restricted to occur in older ages. Almost half of the individual surveyed (47.1%) believed that breast cancer is caused by smoking and drugs. Similarly, half (49.4%) of the individuals know about symptoms of breast cancer. 29.6%individuals know about mammography diagnosis of the disease. Regarding treatment of breast cancer, 56.5% individuals had some idea about treatment while 43.5% individuals did not know about treatment of breast cancer. Present study revealed that although educated still enough awareness is lacking among the participants exposing them to high risks of the cancer.

Cite this article as: Javaria Sundus , Sindhu Abbasi , Sher Ali Khan , Bukhari Zulfiqar Shah;  Prevalence of Breast Cancer in Northern Area of Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 4(1) 01-16, Jan 2021, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4429742

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