North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

  • photo
  • photo

August 2019


  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Gainju, A., Shrestha, A. K., Manandhar, S., Upadhyay, K. P.
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 132-142; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3372914
Abstract: A study was conducted during 2018 in Bhaktapur district of Nepal (1348 masl) to evaluate the growth and yield of promising potato clones. Five promising clones of potato (PRP 35861.18, CIP 384866.5, PRP 226267.11, CIP 388676.1 and PRP 85861.11) provided by National Potato Research Programme, Nepal and 'Desiree' (released variety as a check) were arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 replications. The results revealed that there was significant variation regarding the growth parameters of the clones. Desiree showed the earlier and the highest germination as compared to the promising clones. The highest plant vigor and plant height was observed in PRP 35861.18 while the highest stem thickness and ground cover were in PRP 226267.11. All the 5 promising potato clones were resistant against the late blight while the check variety (Desiree) was highly susceptible. Higher yield was obtained in PRP 85861.11 (24.5 mt/ha), CIP 388676.1 (24.43 mt/ha) and PRP 226267.11 (24.38 mt/ha). The tuber distribution also showed significant variation with the highest oversize tuber number per plant as observed with CIP 388676.1. The farmer’s ranking and organoleptic taste of boiled potato was higher for PRP 226267.11 and PRP 85861.11 respectively. Further research in other agro-ecological zones should be carried out before releasing these clones as new variety.

Cite this article as: Gainju, A., Shrestha, A. K., Manandhar, S., Upadhyay, K. P.;  Performance of Promising Potato Clones for Growth and Yield Characters in Bhaktapur, Nepal;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 132-142; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3372914

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 255    Total Downloaded: 121

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Dr - Tin Tin New ,Yee Mon Phay
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 1219-228; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382346
Abstract: It contributes to the development of the Myanmar literature through creative thinking, word by word and literary translation composed the named Parayana Vatthu.

Cite this article as: Dr - Tin Tin New ,Yee Mon Phay;  Ethical and Literary Impact of Buddhism on Myanmar;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 1219-228; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382346

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 224    Total Downloaded: 50

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Yee Mon Phay, Dr- Tin Tin New, AMR Abdel Wahed
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 202-218 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382337
Abstract: The term “parit” in Myanmar is derived from Pali word ‘paritta’ in accordance with the rule of omitting final syllable (uttaralopa). Actually, the paritta discourses are the suttas preached by the Buddha for the purpose of keeping as an enclosure to be free from troubles and dangers. These suttas are the most popular and handiest ones among lay people. They recite Parit every day to get blessing, to be in safe, to not to get disturbing from evils or devils. The paritta-recitation and listening to it can be regarded as religious activities in Theravada Buddhist countries.

Cite this article as: Yee Mon Phay, Dr- Tin Tin New, AMR Abdel Wahed;  Mantra Reciting of Burmese Buddhists;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 202-218 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382337

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 368    Total Downloaded: 63

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Nusrat Sharmin Lipy, Gazi Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Md. Sharifur Rahman
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 181-201; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382088
Abstract: The aim of this empirical study is to assessing and comparing the perception of teachers towards acceptance and behavioral intention to use of IT innovation services in educational institutions. Methods: The present study followed the UTAUT model and based on the model constructs questionnaires were designed to predict the degree of acceptance. A survey instrument was administered to participants in both Barishal (250) and Patuakhali (200) in Barishal division. The obtained information was analyzed using the statistical software package SPSS version 22.0. This study tested the model using structural equation modeling using AMOS-23. Results: The propensity to act showed that positive mediating effect between behavioral intention and use behavior. Seven predictors of the model yielded 89% of the total variance explained in the final measured behavioral intention to use of IT by teachers. Both samples have a favorable perception of behavioral intention to use of IT innovation services in education institutions 85.6% and 85.4% respectively, and only a small percentage has negative intention to use of IT innovation services in their jobs 4.57% and 5.8% respectively. Based on the statistical outcome of study area it is interestingly noted that actual difference between Barisah and Patuakhali districts education institutions teachers’ negative behavioral intention is a very few percentage (Appr. 1.23%) among the teachers. Conclusion: The result indicates that the improvement of IT innovation services is required in the educational institutions. Directorate of Education general interventions should focus on promoting IT innovation among teacher’s professionals. Finally, this paper introduces important methodological guidelines for measuring perceptions of behavioral intention to use of IT innovation services that currently do not exist. Limitations: The number of male and female teachers is not equal and our respondents were mostly men compared to women. Practical implications: This study extends to knowledge on IT innovation services research by using UTAUT models in the context of technology acceptance. The TADU model is a useful tool for policy makers to assess the likelihood of success for new technology introductions and the possibility of actual use. It helps the education planner to understand the driver of technology acceptance and allows them to design interventions for teachers to use of IT innovation services. Originality/value: This study is one of the first to utilize and revised the UTAUT model to the technology acceptance in order to develop a more robust model. It improves the model by identify new variable and adding propensity to act as a mediator that is able to measure the effect of other factors on the relationship between behavioral intention and usage behaviors.

Cite this article as: Nusrat Sharmin Lipy, Gazi Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Md. Sharifur Rahman;  SEM Approach to Explore Technology Acceptance Decision and Behavioral Intention to Use of Information Technology (IT) Innovation Services in Educational Institutions: A Comparative Study between Two Districts in Bangladesh;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 181-201; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382088

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 248    Total Downloaded: 141

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Dr-Minn Thant, Dr- Tin Tin New, Yee Mon Phay
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 173-180; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382013
Abstract: Behind the existing of literature, we want to know about the letters which were written on something. In particular, palm leaves were mostly used. Palm leaves were easily available in large number, and writing on palm leaves was easier than other. So they were dutiful for writing. In this paper, therefore, palm leaf manuscripts and their background history will be presented according to periods and regions.

Cite this article as: Dr-Minn Thant, Dr- Tin Tin New, Yee Mon Phay;  Palm Leaf Manuscripts (Pe Sar);  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 173-180; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3382013

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 244    Total Downloaded: 147

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Gazi Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Md. Shahinur Rahman, Samir Das
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 155-172; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3378207
Abstract: The past couple of decades have seen a growing interest in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) research in both business and academia. It has been observed that a substantial number of studies on CSR and Financial Performance (FINP) have focused almost entirely on large firms. As pointed out earlier, the bulk number of studies on the link between CSR-firm performances is from developed countries. Thus, a limited number of studies have been conducted in developing countries and more especially in Bangladesh. We cannot generalize the findings from developed countries to developing countries without further research, therefore, requiring more research on the association between CSR and firm performance in manufacturing companies. Objective: This paper aims to exploring how CSR dimensions influence the financial performance and whether the mediating effect of selected organizational factors determine the relationship between CSR and financial performance. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used along with the simple random sampling method to collect 371 respondents’ views from medium and small scale manufacturing firms in Bangladesh. The results were analyzed by using SEM. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was performed followed by structural model to examine the proposed model. Findings: The findings demonstrated that CSR positively affects financial performance and organizational factors fully mediate the CSR-FINP. Furthermore, this study indicates the important order of CSR dimensions which are as follows; environmental protection, social, legal and economic dimension. In addition, it was found that small and medium scale of manufacturing firms carry out moderate level of CSR activities. Implications: The mediation of organizational factors in CSR linkage to financial performance is a major contribution to the literature which may help to explore the relationship between CSR and firm performance. Originality /Values: Results of the model would be practical and useful for business managers who seek a competitive solution for succeeding in a business crises and work in the settings of domestic as well as international business. Limitations and Further Research Direction: Methodologically, we used simple random sampling for data collection. Therefore, the employees may not be representative of the wider population. Thus the findings of this study cannot be generalized to other industrial sectors in Bangladesh. However, future research could be carried out on large samples.

Cite this article as: Gazi Md. Shakhawat Hossain, Md. Shahinur Rahman, Samir Das;  A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) Approach to Explore the Association between Corporate Social Responsibility and Financial Performance: A Single Mediating Mechanism;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 155-172; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3378207

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 242    Total Downloaded: 161

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Dr- Tin Tin New, Yee Mon Phay, Dr- Minn Thant
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 143-154; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3377041
Abstract: Buddhism introduced Myanmar since the first century AD and there prospered in about 4th to 5th century AD in Sriksetra (Hmawza, Pyay), Suvannabhumi (Thaton), Rakhine and Bagan. Since that time, people of Myanmar made their effort to develop and prosper Buddhism having studied Pali, the language of Theravada Buddhism. In Bagan period, they attempted to create Burmese scripts and writing system imitating to Pali. From that time Myanmar Literature gradually had been developed up to present. In this paper it is shed a light about influence of Pali on Myanmar Literature.

Cite this article as: Dr- Tin Tin New, Yee Mon Phay, Dr- Minn Thant;  Impact of Pali on the Development of Myanmar Literature;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 143-154; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3377041

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 269    Total Downloaded: 68

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Muhammad Azeem ullah, Salah Ud Din, Ayesha Azeem, Faisal Nazeer, Abdul Malik, Muhammad Nouman Khan, Muhammad Sajid
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 100-109; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371786
Abstract: Nickle-Tungsten-Phosphorous (Ni-W-P) alloy coating was prepared by electro-less nickel plating on pure aluminum sheet. For activation of aluminum surface, pickling and zinc immersion was carried out. Furthermore, reinforcement and reduction of corrosion potential, copper electroplating was inspected before deposition for better adherence. In this present research work focus on the variation of tungsten content in chemical plating bath for constant plating time. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to observe the surface morphology of the samples. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) was used to determine the coating composition and thickness of the coating catalyst. Behavior of hardness was measured by Vickers hardness tester techniques while its porosity have been observed by stereoscope. The medium used for corrosion resistance testing was 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) with hydrochloric acid (HCl) giving 4-5 pH. The predominant phase in the coating was nickel along with phosphides of nickel and nodules of tungsten content. Coating showed higher hardness and good corrosion resistance as compared to substrate. With increase in tungsten content, hardness increased and spherical size was decreased. Hence, uniform and thick coating was obtained.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Azeem ullah, Salah Ud Din, Ayesha Azeem, Faisal Nazeer, Abdul Malik, Muhammad Nouman Khan, Muhammad Sajid;  Effect of Tungsten Content on Corrosion Resistance and Hardness of Aluminum by Electro-less Coating;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 100-109; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371786

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 405    Total Downloaded: 125

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Khin Myint Myint
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 123-131; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371828
Abstract: Sasana is admonition.

Cite this article as: Khin Myint Myint;  Causes for Prosperity of Sasana (Admonition) and Causes of its Downfall;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 123-131; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371828

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 325    Total Downloaded: 297

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Phyu Phyu Thein, Aye Myat Thu, Mya Thuzar Hlaing
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 110-122; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371796
Abstract: This paper is about the nature of good and bad conducts in verbally, their consequences and the factor s of four verbal misconducts. This paper points out that the fruitful words can give the secular and in secular benefit in both present and future existences. These benefits can also be got the listeners too. Therefore, in order to describe the nature and consequences of verbal good conducts and bad conducts and to apply the verbal good conducts for establishing the peaceful social relationship, this paper is presented. This paper is presented by using destructive method and extracted from Pali texts, commentaries, sub-commentaries and their texts.

Cite this article as: Phyu Phyu Thein, Aye Myat Thu, Mya Thuzar Hlaing;  Verbal Action in Buddhist Literature;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 110-122; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3371796

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 288    Total Downloaded: 100

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Shilimi Moono, Yibin Li
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 81-99 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3367810
Abstract: Career success is the main focus of career scholars as well as organizational stakeholders. Historically, career success has been conceptualized and measured objectively, mainly as salary, rank, or number of promotions. However, the changing nature of work has also necessitated a change in the way many employees view success, adding a more subjective component. Although there has been theoretical discussion and calls to develop a comprehensive measure of subjective career success, no contemporary comprehensive quantitative measure exists. The goal of this study was to highlight the factors that contribute to the objective career success as well as the subjective career success of project managers.

Cite this article as: Shilimi Moono, Yibin Li;  Factors that Contribute to the Objective and Subjective Career Success of Project Managers;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 81-99 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3367810

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 591    Total Downloaded: 85

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Muhammad Asif Nadeem, Syed Muhammad Raza Abidi, Naimat Ullah Khan, Liting Zhu
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 62-80 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3367786
Abstract: This article is a case study of Pakistan's labor migration to the Gulf countries from 2006 to 2018. The outflow, patterns and trends of the Pakistani labor force in the Gulf countries and their current structure and the categories of migrants’ labor workers like as skilled and unskilled are discussed. It also provides the summary of reasons for labor migration from Pakistan to the Gulf States, such as unemployment, low salaries and poverty. Labor migration in the Gulf States refers to the flow of population in the region mainly for employment purposes. Pakistan has been actively involved in dispatching workers to the Gulf region and the rest of the world. In terms of cash remittances received, Pakistan is the world's leading labor sending country. Labor exports reduce unemployment; increase wages, and remittances sent to the country, improve the international balance of payments, reduce poverty, improve health, educational outcomes, promote economic development, and reduce the negative impact of mountain society. We have studied who, why and how many people allocate and move for labor from Pakistan to Gulf region and the factors involved in labor migration along with its effects.We have found Saudi Arabia and UAE are highly generated remittances countries in the Gulf regionand about (44.18%) and (35.44%) respectively.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Asif Nadeem, Syed Muhammad Raza Abidi, Naimat Ullah Khan, Liting Zhu;  Migration Impact on Remittances Special Focus on Gulf Countries: A Case Study of Pakistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 62-80 ; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3367786

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 238    Total Downloaded: 144

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Titki Djoal Tarassoum
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 49-61; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3367784
Abstract: Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) was grown on sandy-loam soil in a dry tropical climate of Vilanculos under four irrigation frequencies using a hand-held bucket irrigation system. Irrigation frequencies consisted of IF1: Watering the plants twice a day (once in the morning and once in the afternoon), IF2: Watering once a day in the afternoons, IF3: Watering once a day in the mornings, and IF4: Watering twice a day (once in the morning and once in the afternoon) at one-day intervals. Okra plants grown under IF1 and IF3 were significantly taller, but exhibited lower average growth rate (P <0.05) than those under IF2 and IF4. However, the different watering frequencies had no significant effect on plant diameter. Plants under IF1 produced significantly longer fruits, but fruit diameter was statistically similar under IF1 & IF2, and fruit weight similar under IF1, IF2 & IF3. While watering twice a day resulted in relatively taller okra plants and longer fruits, the results from this study suggest that watering plants once a day in the mornings (IF3) represented a viable water-saving irrigation strategy for optimal okra plant height and fruit weight.

Cite this article as: Titki Djoal Tarassoum;  Performance of Okra(Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench) under Different Irrigation Frequencies;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 49-61; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3367784

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 433    Total Downloaded: 104

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Aye Myat Thu,Dr. Phyu Phyu Thein, Ni Ni Win
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 41-48; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3364846
Abstract: This paper is presented with a view to enabling to know that the dhammas preached by the Buddha are existing well organized as Buddhist Literature in the forms of Sutta, Vinaya and Dhamma due to the benefits of the six conventions of Sangayana that are accepted by the Theravada Buddhists.

Cite this article as: Aye Myat Thu,Dr. Phyu Phyu Thein, Ni Ni Win;  Buddhist Councils and their Effect on Buddhist Literature;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 41-48; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3364846

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 300    Total Downloaded: 147

  Volume: 2 Issue: 8
Mohsin AKM, Lei Hongzhen
2, Issue 8; August-2019 ;
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 1-40; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3359666
Abstract: Born in 1971, Bangladesh witnessed a phenomenal growth in banking industry since the liberalization policy was introduced in 1980s. Before the liberalization policy, there were only four domestic banks (Sonali Bank, Pubali Bank, Rupali Bank, and Janata Bank) in Bangladesh and they were nationalized. There were only three foreign banks. However, there was no private bank. As a result, there was no competition in the banking industry of Bangladesh. The banking market was highly concentrated and dominated by four nationalized banks. The profitability of banks was highly unsatisfactory due to risk and competition. Still banking industries are facing those types of risk and competition for generating profit. As much as possible we are trying to find out sort of risk and competition of bank in Bangladesh. Bank lending rates were taken as a proxy for interest rate while Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on equity (ROE) were taken as a profitability of the banks. The failure model was used in the study to witness the effects of interest rate on profitability. The results show that the interest rate has more effects on both ROA and ROE in private banks as compared to the public sector banks. We introduce a new perspective to systematically investigate the cause-and-effect relationships among competition, innovation, risk-taking, and profitability in the Bangladesh banking industry. Our hypothesis are tested by the structural equation modeling (SEM), and the empirical results show that (i) risk-taking is positively related to profitability; (ii) innovation positively affects both risk-taking and profitability, and the effect of innovation on profitability works both directly and indirectly; (iii) competition negatively affects risk-taking but positively affects both innovation and profitability, and the effects of competition on risk-taking and profitability work both directly and indirectly; (iv) there is a cascading relationship among market competition and bank innovation, risk-taking, and profitability.

Cite this article as: Mohsin AKM, Lei Hongzhen;  A study on the impact of risk and competition on bank profitability in Bangladesh;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(8) : 1-40; https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3359666

Open PDF      Direct Download    View: 350    Total Downloaded: 2604


  • 34 Wolf Rd Colonie (near TrustCo Bank), NY 12205, United States
  • Email : editor@twasp.info ; Phone : +1 (518) 458-8561/ +1 (917) 341-1480 (Hours: Mon - Fri, 0900h - 1730h )