North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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April 2020


  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Ismail Shinwari , Farmanullah Sultani
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 715-730, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3767547
Abstract: Effective supervision is a fundamental part of administration conveyance in social help organizations. Research on the adequacy of school-based projects for anticipating or decreasing forceful conduct was combined with a meta-analysis.

Cite this article as: Ismail Shinwari , Farmanullah Sultani;  A Meta-Analysis of Effective Supervision on Educational Institutions;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 715-730, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3767547

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Vinay Soni , Li Haiwang , Tiane , Arif Hossain
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) , 1-25, 2020, https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.3765303
Abstract: A practical solution to avoid structural damage in building during earthquakes involves the use of base isolation, which consists of decoupling the superstructure from its foundation to reduce transmission of seismic waves from the ground into the structure. The main objective of this paper is to develop a new seismic isolation device containing rubber, steel and spring as well which will react resistive in nature during earthquake and can bare lateral and vertical displacement too which as result will not affect the structure of a building. Device contains mild steel sheet of 2.06% carbon, up to 1.65% of manganese, up to 0.5% of silicon and sulphur and phosphorus as impurities, a die springs which are made up of rectangular wire instead of circular, unlike their ‘compression’ counterparts, a elastomer (rubber) sheet named as KL301 which have Shear modulus of 4300 kPa and the thickness sheet is 20mm with diameter of 182mm are used. Test are on simulation based on sliding condition (earthquake resistive building) and on non-sliding condition (earthquake nonresistive building). The seismic isolation device, which is placed on the plinth level, consists of outer steel plate, rubber plate, inner steel plate and spring braces. Spring box allows for free support of the structure in terms of (1) They can control movement in all directions, (2) They can retain deformation in all directions, (3)They can bare horizontal as well as vertical forces (wind, earthquake) on the structure of a building. As a result of simulation by linear dynamic possessing random vibration and response spectrum analysis test on both the building the mass participation were different on both the building which shows that a building without base isolation system have more damage compared to building with a base isolation device by approx. 27% difference.

Cite this article as: Vinay Soni , Li Haiwang , Tiane , Arif Hossain;  DESIGN OF A BASE-ISOLATION SYSTEM FOR SEISMIC PROTECTION OF BUILDINGS ACCORDING TO SEISMIC ZONE FACTOR OF INDIA;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) , 1-25, 2020, https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.3765303

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Raiana Jannat Ahsan , Guijun Qin, Yanling Liu , Sakurul Islam
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 708-714, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3765716
Abstract: In majority of the cases of diabetes the severe and persistent complications contribute to different ailments and even demise. Since the prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising throughout the age range, one-third of type 2 diabetes patients are found to have low levels of testosterone. As glycated hemoglobin acts as a biomarker for the assessment of control and severity of diabetes we focused on determining the correlation between testosterone and glycated hemoglobin in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and also to analyze the association between testosterone and glycated hemoglobin in type 2 diabetic, prediabetic patients and control group. Research Design and Method: The testosterone-glycated hemoglobin association was studied in 156 type 2 Diabetes patients, 159 Prediabetes patients and 180 healthy men. In addition to the aforementioned correlation, the association of SHBG and Free testosterone to other factors such as age, BMI, lipid profile, and HbA1c was also analyzed in 3 participant classes. Result : Mean concentration of testosterone in T2DM patients 5.5±2.2 ng/ml is low than Control (6.47±1.4 ng/ml) and Prediabetic group (6.2±2.3 ng/ml) with a P value of less than 0.001 and 0.002 respectively. Free testosterone levels were significantly lower in T2DM patients (11.8±5.9pg/ml) and prediabetic patients (12.6± 5.3 pg/ml) than control group (15.5±3.4 pg/ml) with a P value of less than 0.001 for both. In T2DM patients there was an inverse correlation between testosterone and HbA1c (r= -0.268, P=0.001), BMI (r= -0.29, P<0.001), TC (r= - 0.211, P=0.008), TG (r= -0.33, P=0.001) and positive association with HDL(r= 0.231, P=0.004); SHBG correlated positively with age (r=0.475, P<0.001), HDL (r=0.191, P=0.01) and negatively with BMI (r= -0.392, P<0.001), TG (r=-0.453, P<0.001), TC (r=-0.258, P=0.001) and HbA1c (r=-0.207, P=0.009). Free testosterone correlated negatively with age in all 3 groups of participants. The negative association between testosterone and Glycated hemoglobin persisted even after adjusting for age and BMI. In multiple regression analysis, BMI and HbA1c were identified as independent variable for Testosterone. Conclusion: A significant inverse association between Glycated hemoglobin and testosterone in patients with type 2 diabetes was observed. As HbA1c indicates the glycemic control of past 3 months in type 2 diabetes patient with high level of Glycated hemoglobin is an indicator to check the testosterone level along with other routine tests for determining presence of asymptomatic and dormant complications.

Cite this article as: Raiana Jannat Ahsan , Guijun Qin, Yanling Liu , Sakurul Islam;  Correlation of Glycated Hemoglobin and Testosterone in Chinese men of Henan Province with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 708-714, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3765716

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Zakim Hussain , Ye Xu , Khalid Mehmood , Asif Mahmood , Adnan Waqas , Muhammad Yousaf
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 662-682, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3764521
Abstract: Eddy current is produced when a conducting coil started movement through the static magnetic field or when the magnetic field which is time varying moved through the static conducting coil. Such kind of current when passes through the conducting coil, a magnetic field generates having an opposite polarity that resists to change in magnetic flux. The vibrations in vibrating structures ‘using the concept of electromagnetic principle of electromotive force (EMF) combining with a shunt circuit RLC known as electromagnetic shunt damper (EMSD) that dissipate mechanical energy to electrical energy. In this study a newly designed mechanical CAD model along fabricated RLC shunt circuit is used for vibration suppression in cantilever beam. Moreover, some other factors like effect of EMSD distance (1mm, 2mm and 3mm) from coil which is attached with edge of beam and frequency responses on first and second modes are analyzed through experiments and ANASYS simulation. Results revealed that maximum damping ratio 4.92% is achieved at 2mm distance as compare to 1mm (1.93%) and 3mm (1.67%) distance. This work demonstrates that effect of magnetic lines distance from coil play an important role for eddy current generation in electromechanical system for vibration suppression in cantilever beam.

Cite this article as: Zakim Hussain , Ye Xu , Khalid Mehmood , Asif Mahmood , Adnan Waqas , Muhammad Yousaf;  Optimized designed electromechanical system based on eddy current for vibration suppression in cantilevered beam;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 662-682, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3764521

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Barun Kumar, Prof. Wang shi ying, Atta-Ur-Rehman , Md Ahmed Sanuar Hossain, Khan shahnewaz sohagh
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 683-695, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3764537
Abstract: Elevators are one of the most important inventions in human history, are one of the key players in shaping urbanization of our society and required technological advancements to continue their safe and efficient use. Nowadays, many motion profiles are used in an elevator to improve its efficiency and comfortably of human beings. This paper will present the design and simulation of the motion profile of a stepper motor which comprises the use of the Arduino microcontroller and Arduino code to produce optimize motion profile output and it will use in the elevator system to get its high efficiency and accuracy. A timer interrupts program is written in Arduino IDE for stepper motor in point-to-point motion method for a given time to reach its constant acceleration/deceleration and maximum speed. A graph of this motion profile is plotted in excel from the time output of the serial plotter of Arduino IDE versus the speed that is given in the program of the motor.

Cite this article as: Barun Kumar, Prof. Wang shi ying, Atta-Ur-Rehman , Md Ahmed Sanuar Hossain, Khan shahnewaz sohagh;  Design of Motion Profile of Stepper Motor for Elevator Using Arduino Uno;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 683-695, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3764537

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
MUSTAFA FROTAN, EN PING LI
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 697-707, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3765585
Abstract: : How to improve the overseas customer satisfaction? This question is the focus of this research. Hence, the aim is on improving overseas customer satisfaction. However, customer satisfaction is the main focus. Customer are the reason we are in business and customer satisfaction is what keeps them coming back. It takes a tremendous effort to gain a new customer and only seconds to lose one. Service must be exemplary if we want to sustain and grow our customer base and ultimately our business. In a small company it is very evident if customers are dissatisfied. People complain directly to the proprietor. The situation is very different in a large company. Customers are dealt with by many different people. There are multiple touch points for any single customer which could cause dissatisfaction – the sales representation, the customer service team, the delivery people, the finance department and so on. The managers of the company undoubtedly have hundreds of customers, possibly scattered around the world, and the only way they can know for sure how satisfied they are by carrying out a survey. This brings with it a number of potential problems and the survey itself is the least of these. Measuring customer satisfaction is easy compared to the task of implementing improvements.

Cite this article as: MUSTAFA FROTAN, EN PING LI;  Improvement overseas customer satisfaction;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 697-707, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3765585

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Dulmina Wijerama
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 651-661, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3764508
Abstract: A trial and a numerical examination were led to think about the stream fields of an upgraded hub fan dependent on a business accessible pivotal fan. The PIV estimations showed the external stream field of the hub fan and gave a decent understanding with the 3-D numerical outcomes by subjective and quantitative approvals. Prompt static weight arrangements on the pivoting cutting edges and the streamline examples situated in the rotor part delineated the subtleties of stream qualities in the inward locale of the hub fan, which were accepted to have cozy association with the streamlined clamor age. The time averaged speed and weight arrangements on the estimating plane among rotor and stator uncovered the clamor radiation related with the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) dispersions just as weight variances prompted by the rotor-stator collaboration. The wind current speed dispersions close to the fan outlet were likewise acquired to break down the blockage impact brought about by the wire direction channel.

Cite this article as: Dulmina Wijerama;  Numerical Analysis on Cooling Fan Characteristics;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 651-661, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3764508

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Anuj. A. Desai, Dr. Zhang Ruiliang
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 549-565, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3758784
Abstract: Wear resistance of metal resources may remain effectually enhanced through deep cryogenic treatments. In this research work, several unfathomable cryogenic treatment circumstances remained contemplating, along contradictory soaked periods among satisfying and moderating. The core aim remains scrutinizing the impacts of unfathomable cryogenic treatment and reconnoitering the affiliation amongst the automatic characterization and the micro-structure of GB 35CrMoV toughen. Firmness then comparative attire proportions of examples stayed estimated from Vickers-hardness trial and the pin-on-disk attire trial, correspondingly. Damaged surfaces remain considered thorough a non-contact visual surfaces profiler. Microstructures stood premeditated through skimming electron optical microscopes (SEM) besides X-ray diffractions (XRD). Important developments in stiffness besides attire confrontation stay experimental for advanced cryogenic soaked periods; the root mean square deviation (RMS) parameters (Sq.) were active for evaluating the impact of unfathomable cryogenic treatment happening damaged superficial jaggedness; the enhancements were recognized toward hastened carbides. The mode of action may be elucidated not individual by way of endorsed impact of unfathomable cryogenic treatments in rottenness kinetics of martensite’s, nonetheless similarly by way of quickening happening the Ostwald seasoning procedure.

Cite this article as: Anuj. A. Desai, Dr. Zhang Ruiliang;  Effects of Cryogenic Treatments on Wear Resistance and Lifetime of Gear;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 549-565, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3758784

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Zahid Muhammad, Zhishan Zhang
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 612-627, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3757038
Abstract: Natural frameworks can change over inexhaustible assets, including lignocellulosic biomass, starch harvests, and carbon dioxide, into powers, synthetics, and materials. Ethanol and different items are currently gotten from starch crops, for example, corn. Compound based innovation is being worked on for transformation of lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., wood, grasses, and farming and civil squanders) into fuel ethanol. Biomass derived oil (BDO) reforming with CO2 was carried out at 800 C under atmospheric pressure in a tubular fixed bed vertical reactor packed with quartz particles.

Cite this article as: Zahid Muhammad, Zhishan Zhang;  Production of fuels and chemicals from biomass : Generated from oil and similar byproducts;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 612-627, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3757038

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
SOEUNG Seyhak
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 566-588, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3758974
Abstract: This paper demonstrated the advantage and advantage of globalization in Kingdom of Cambodia Context. In this context, I introduced about the advantage and disadvantage of globalization to Cambodia, what is the challenge that Cambodia facing. This paper also demonstrated the way in which globalization has made Cambodia grow significantly in terms of the expansion in economy, creation more jobs, increased foreign investment and foreign aid, especially case study about poverty reduction. On the other hand, globalization also has impacted Cambodian society by exploiting the Cambodian people in cheap labor forces.

Cite this article as: SOEUNG Seyhak;  Advantage and Disadvantage of Globalization in Cambodia Context;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 566-588, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3758974

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Imtiaz Ali Mallah, Paras Rani Mahar, Lutif-ul-Rehman, Aalia Aslam, Azra Soomro, Unaib Afzal, Dildar Ali Maree
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 589-611, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3758987
Abstract: The purpose of this investigative study is to decide the most persuasive components influencing the activity fulfillment and general occupation fulfillment (GOF) of workers. The study carried out at Cement industry in Sindh, Pakistan. The rewarded workers are essential driver for achievement of the association. Significance and need of fulfilled representatives are inescapable, and their assistance is to build the benefit and hold the association notoriety in each focused market (FM). The information has been gathered through different sources including essential and auxiliary sources, 327 questionnaires were conveyed among the workers of different Cement factories in the distinctive areas of the province. This examination has been led with the graphic and inferential measurements, Pareto investigation and connection coefficient to decide the most powerful factors influencing the activity fulfillment of workers and to break down the connections between the general occupation fulfillment, characteristic, and outward factors which impact the general occupation fulfillment of representatives in Cement factories of Sindh .Open finished inquiries in Likert scale arranged and sorted out to gather the information. The outcomes are very shocking so that the representatives denied the frame sensible pay benefits in solid working conditions, which justify based incidental advantages, accomplishments and gaining from work-itself. Different proposals of this examine exploration are featured and prescribed to the government and to the partners. The constraints and strategy for future heading of research are likewise talked about.

Cite this article as: Imtiaz Ali Mallah, Paras Rani Mahar, Lutif-ul-Rehman, Aalia Aslam, Azra Soomro, Unaib Afzal, Dildar Ali Maree;  Factors Affecting the Job fulfillment of Employees; A case study of Cement factories industry in Sindh, Pakistan;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 589-611, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3758987

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Annabelle Gadabu
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 453-489, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756213
Abstract: Personal health management is a relatively new concept in Malawi which allows patients to manage health through mobile health (mHealth). Chipatala Cha Pa Foni (CCPF) project, translated from the Chichewa language to "health center by phone" is a hotline service that serves the general public. However, the use of this service in Malawi is considerably low and few studies have been carried out to investigate factors that influence acceptance and use. This study empirically investigates determinants of acceptance and use using a theoretical model founded on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) and trust. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire from 379 respondents across 3 districts. Using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) technique, data was analyzed and results showed that trust, effort expectancy, and performance expectancy positively influenced behavioral intentions. Findings also showed that four out of seven mediation effects between several variables including facilitating conditions and social influence were not supported. The results offer empirical support for several elements of the model used in the investigation in line with prior studies. The study offers novel insights into the mediating role of trust between UTAUT constructs and behavioral intentions. Since UTAUT is a fundamental theoretical model in technology acceptance research, modifying the model to suit the patients’ context contributes to growth in health research.

Cite this article as: Annabelle Gadabu;  To Use or Not to Use. Investigating M-health Acceptance by Citizens in Malawi Using UTAUT and Trust;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 453-489, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756213

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
SUY Bunlay
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 525-535, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756278
Abstract: Vietnam War is thought to be the best-known military conflict after the World War II. This is because of the US’s far-reaching involvement in the war during the 1960s. The Vietnam War originated from the Vietnamese struggle to liberate the country off the French colonization. The United States kept supporting France and by 1954, the Americans were covering approximately 80 per cent of the cost of the French campaign. With fear of the so-called ‘domino theory’ combined with the already massive cost, the Unite States, under Eisenhower administration, did not accept the unified Vietnam ruled by the DRV and began to involve more in the conflict in Indochina. At the end of the story, it was the United States who lost in the war in Vietnam. In this context, it might be questionable how a powerful country like the United States, that defeated the powerful Japanese and ended the World War II, lost in war against a poorlyequipped Vietnam. Therefore, this paper is intended to point out the relevant factors that contribute to the defeat of the United States in Vietnam War.

Cite this article as: SUY Bunlay;  VIETNAM WAR: Why the American Lost in Vietnam War;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 525-535, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756278

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Ismail Shinwari , Sariullah Sari, Farmanullah Sultani
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 509-524, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756270
Abstract: This little research has adapted clearly on the system of identifying comprehensive training prerequisites for HOD and shows the designed plan and activity of a program to generally consider the activity requirements for HOD of universities. Results from a couple of step plans opened those reports and supporting, personnel matters, legitimate issues, expert improvement of HOD. Managers had positioned as the most important preparation required. Benefits of these strategy techniques will reduce issues to get achievement, potential cut off points, ways for up and coming examination, are pondered.

Cite this article as: Ismail Shinwari , Sariullah Sari, Farmanullah Sultani;  The importance of leadership training for Head of Department: a study of a public university in Afghanistan;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 509-524, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756270

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
MD ARIFUL HOSSAIN, HAIWANG LI, TIANE LI, VINAY SANI, SAID IKRAM SADAT
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 536-548, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3757278
Abstract: Bangladesh is a south Asian developing country which is used to struggle with various natural disasters and the earthquake is one of them. Bangladesh is of the most earthquake venerable countries of the world[1] but Bangladesh is ill prepared to tackle the aftermath of any strong earthquake. Geographical location of Bangladesh makes it ideally suited to earthquake. Bangladesh is surrounded by the regions of high seismicity which include the Himalayan Arc and shillong plateau in the north, the Burmese Arc, Arakan Yoma anticlinorium in the east and complex Naga-Disang-Jaflong thrust zones in the northeast.[2] It is also the site of the Dauki Fault system along with numerous subsurface active faults and a flexure zone called Hinge Zone.[2] These weak regions are believed to provide the necessary zones for movements within the basin area. Bangladesh is the world’s most densely populated area, any future earthquake shall affect more people per unit area than any other seismically active regions of the world. Here, I have tried to discuss about the risks of earthquake disaster in Bangladesh and the historical earthquakes that occurred in Bangladesh.

Cite this article as: MD ARIFUL HOSSAIN, HAIWANG LI, TIANE LI, VINAY SANI, SAID IKRAM SADAT;  Investigation of Urban Earthquake Disaster Shelter and Relief Base in Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 536-548, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3757278

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Arafa Mutimba Nakijoba
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 395-405, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753622
Abstract: This paper examines the economic benefits and costs of the relationship between China and Uganda which originates from Uganda’s post-independence period of 1962. The mutual Uganda–China relations are developing at a steady pace, from the onset of formal diplomatic ties especially after 1986 when president Museveni rose to power. Its varied parts embody historical links, diplomatic relations, multilateral co-operation, trade and investment, and public media engagement. At an equivalent time, there are differences between the two countries that continue to shape ties and distinguish them from China’s relations with other African countries. Uganda is a diversified economy endowed with abundant resources not yet exploited which many foreign investors have had an eye on. China is seen as a key competitor in sectors Uganda views as strategic, as well as being an investor in resources. China has become an influential player in Uganda’s economy and development. This trend has brought opportunities and challenges to both economies, which share a similar global vision. This has made the two emerging countries to work towards closer strategic co-operation that takes account of the structure of bilateral economic ties, domestic diversity and overlapping interests.

Cite this article as: Arafa Mutimba Nakijoba;  The Economic Benefits and Costs of The China- Uganda Relationship;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 395-405, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753622

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
MithunMondal , Sudeeppokharel , Md ZannatulArif
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 430-441, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753639
Abstract: The close loop current control consists coupling terms with PI regulator in d & q component of the current. All these current loops based on reference transformation (like DQabc) so on & Phase locked loop so on, that is quit complex thing can be make accurately model as transfer function of second order. The current control model will be compared to the equivalent closed loop current control transfer function by applying the second order system. By this technique, easily can be calculated PI regulator control gain. Then apply the unitary step response for comparing the result between the current control loop & equivalent current control transfer function. Finally, we will be applied the inverse-Laplace transform, where the dynamic behavior is given by natural frequency into the exponential term.

Cite this article as: MithunMondal , Sudeeppokharel , Md ZannatulArif;  Verification of the closed loop current controls of Rotor & Grid side converter (RSC & GSC) model of DFIG based Wind Turbine;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 430-441, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753639

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Hamza Atifnigar , Mohammad Sharif Hasanzoy , Muhammad Yaqoob Seraj , Zia ur Rahman Zaheer
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 413-429, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750386
Abstract: : Textbook evaluation is the only resolution for developing a standardized curriculum and syllabus in the area of teaching and learning. This paper aims to evaluate grade 12th English textbook entitled English for Afghanistan that has been recently introduced by the Afghanistan ministry of education. This paper also seeks to identify the general attributes and language teaching content of the selected book to see whether it fulfills the needs of grade 12th English language learners. The results of this study bring the attention of curriculum developers, book designers, and policymakers to provide equal priority to each language learning skill and make it appropriate for the age of grade 12th learners. A quantitative approach was used, and data was collected through the five scale Likert style checklist questionnaire adapted from the quantitative study of (Mukundan & Nimehchisalem, 2012). The finding indicates that most criteria of the checklist were aligned with the general attributes of the book, and to the most extent, the book satisfies the needs of grade 12th learners. However, due to its complexity, the book is not suitable for the age of the target students. Furthermore, it was also found from the evaluation of the content of teaching-learning criteria that most of the integrated skills of the English language, including reading, writing, and speaking, were broadly focused and favorable for students. At the same time, listening was not concentrated at all in the textbook.

Cite this article as: Hamza Atifnigar , Mohammad Sharif Hasanzoy , Muhammad Yaqoob Seraj , Zia ur Rahman Zaheer;  An Evaluation of Grade 12th English Language Textbook for Afghanistan: From Teachers’ Perspectives;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 413-429, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750386

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Rajesh Sigdel , Om Prakash Prasad Kalwar, Prabin Poudel , Pawan Karki , Jharna Sharma ,Deepa Dahal , Catherine Mahae B. Jandug
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 267-283, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750386
Abstract: This study was carried out in Rautahat District to assess climate and land cover changes at the local level. The main objective was to assess changes in land cover and climatic variables in the Churia and Terai regions of Nepal. The major indicators selected for this study were land cover, temperature, rainfall, river flow, flood, drought and fire. Landsat images of 1989 and 2017, MODIS (Terra and Aqua) and VIIRS fire locations data from 2002 to 2018, CHIRPS rainfall data from 1981 to 2017, MOD11A2 V6 temperature data from 2001 to 2016 and Bagmati river discharges at Pandhere Dovan from1988 to 2015 were used for this study. Similarly, for drought analysis meteorological data from Simara was used. Supervised image classification method was applied to classify Landsat images into forest, agriculture, settlement, bare land and water cover using maximum likelihood algorithm in ERDAS Imagine and changes in land covers were analyzed in ArcGIS. Temperature and rainfall data were extracted from Google Earth Engine and their time series responses were plotted. Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) was analyzed for drought. Results show that forest area in the district has increased by 8%. Annual rainfall has increased by 3 mm per year and temperature has increased by 0.06oC. Fire incidence has increased by one incidence per year. The year 2012 was extreme drought year having -2.54 SPI value. Similarly, The Bagmati and Bakaiya river beds have expanded by 2.5% per year. The annual water flow in Bagmati River has decreased by 1.84 m3 /s per year.

Cite this article as: Rajesh Sigdel , Om Prakash Prasad Kalwar, Prabin Poudel , Pawan Karki , Jharna Sharma ,Deepa Dahal , Catherine Mahae B. Jandug;  An Assessment of Climate and Land Cover Changes at Local Level: A case study of Rautahat District, Nepal;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 267-283, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750386

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Ronaldo Muvunyi, Rémy Patrick Tumwizere, Félicien Majoro, Concilie Mukamwambali, Anabella K. Umuhoza, Danny Kanamugire and Emmanuel Hagenimana
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 490-508, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756242
Abstract: This paper conducts a comparative experimental analysis to investigate the nutrients accumulation in agricultural Runoff by Using Organic Manure in Form of Pellets. the aim consists of protecting water resources against over enrichment of nutrients from steep agricultural lands, and providing with environmental management practice for sustainable and climate resilient soil fertility management in Rwanda. Different type of household waste was collected and mixed with cow dung, then dried and crushed to make a better experimental sample. The manure laboratory test was conducted to measure the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium to determine its fertilizing value compared to standards of leguminous crops and NPK. A part of manure flour was wetted to form Pellets (size 2cm x 1cm x 0.5cm) which had been used for the fertilizer deep placement (FDP) application in two first sets of land, and the remaining manure was mixed with surface soil “(for fertilizer surface application (FSA)) on another same size of land. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0-15 cm from the surface. the samples were air dried and ground to pass through a 2 mm sieve. Beans were planted on two sets of land one with FDP and the other with FSA, the same to eggplant on the same size of land. The analysis result of the mixed manure shown that Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium were found to be 0.943%, 0.0197% and 3.93% respectively for which phosphorus was not falling in the standard range of (1.6-4.2) % while others fall in their ranges (0.5-1.9) % and (2.3-12) % respectively [17]. On the other hand, the analyzed runoff from the FSA and FDP fields shown that the concentrations of nutrients (mg/l) were different: in the FSA runoff, nitrate, phosphate and potash were 0.12, 0.32 and 11.8 whereas in the FDP runoff the concentrations were only 0.044, 0.13 and 4.3 respectively. The advantageous result is that manure fertilizer was found to be effective for leguminous crops due to its way of keeping the soil fertility and increasing the water holding capacity. The study concluded that FDP should not be applied to legumes without considering the size of pellets. Large size pellets do not improve the crop yield, moreover, not suitable for the crops. Hence FSA is more acceptable for the vegetables.

Cite this article as: Ronaldo Muvunyi, Rémy Patrick Tumwizere, Félicien Majoro, Concilie Mukamwambali, Anabella K. Umuhoza, Danny Kanamugire and Emmanuel Hagenimana;  A Study on Nutrients Accumulation in Agricultural Runoff by Using Organic Manure in Form of Pellets: Case Study of Muyange Marshland in RWANDA;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 490-508, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3756242

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Muhammad Imran , Muhammad Imran Lashari , Muhammad Amir Shahzad , Muhammad Ahmed Khan , Mirza Muhammad Abubakar Baig , Saeed Jamal
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 442-452, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753646
Abstract: Heat Treatment behavior of Q235 high strength steel (HSS) for structural engineering application has been an important research topic in recent years. In this research, a review of high strength steel (HSS) behavior before and after heat treatment is provided. In this study first of all mechanical properties like Ultimate Tensile strength, Yield Strength, Toughness and Hardness are calculated before heat treatment and then performed heat treatment processes like Annealing, Hardening and Tempering and recalculate all above mentioned mechanical properties. As a result, the Ultimate Tensile Strength was increased from 347 MPa to 883 MPA, the Yield Strength was increased from 240 MPa to 750 MPa, the Hardness was increased from 105BHN to 238BHN and the Impact Toughness was lowered. It can be seen that heat treatment process greatly improves the mechanical properties of high strength steel. Therefore, the heat treatment has the advantage that the performance of material can be easily improved without changing the specimen size. In the future, a microstructure analysis of this study can also be performed.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Imran , Muhammad Imran Lashari , Muhammad Amir Shahzad , Muhammad Ahmed Khan , Mirza Muhammad Abubakar Baig , Saeed Jamal;  Enhancement of mechanical properties of Q-235 high strength steel using heat treatment process;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 442-452, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753646

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Pilar Mejía Buenfil
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 406-412, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753626
Abstract: We live in a world that is heavily influenced by media, where they show different body shapes and stereotypes that are taken as beautiful, and indicates that if one person doesn’t fit into that body shape ore stereotypes, then you will not be considered beautiful. In China there have been different challenges to show off a slender body shape, mostly targeted to women, in where different objects are used to show a small waist of thin body, however, this kind of challenges only adds stress and phycological pressure to women to urgently fit in the social media standard that will make them feel beautiful.

Cite this article as: Pilar Mejía Buenfil;  Body perception and body-shaming in China;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 406-412, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3753626

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Sunanda Rani , Dhaneshwar Shah , Dong Jining ,Wang Meiyan
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 134-145, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3748819
Abstract: This research paper focuses on the present situation and the future of Chinese contemporary women ink artist. The art of Chinese painting is famous as an ink painting andhas a long history. There are many renowned male artists from modern times to the present, but we can find documentation of women ink artist. Chinese ink painting is known as Guo Hua, it means the country or national art but the problem is that why there are very few women artists has often been discussed, they did not get recognitions equivalent to male ink artists. The women artists of Chinese ink paintings are always forgotten or ignored. Nowadays the situation is developing, society thought process also changes. Chinese ink painting has many developed forms such as Traditional ink painting, Modern ink painting, Contemporary ink painting, Abstract ink painting, etc. The art environment of Chinese ink painting has entered a new era with new positive prosperity. Women ink artists have also become an important intensity that cannot be ignored in Chinese painting. Contemporary Chinese women ink artist artworks from the subject matter, concept, aesthetic vision, composition, color, all have women an intuitive understanding of social life and different feelings of artistic expression. This paper mainly discussed the challenge, present situation and importance of Chinese women ink artists in present era.

Cite this article as: Sunanda Rani , Dhaneshwar Shah , Dong Jining ,Wang Meiyan;  Chinese Contemporary Women Ink Artist;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 134-145, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3748819

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Rabail Zulekha , Riaz Bibi , Zulfiqar Ahmad , Azhar Hussian , Aslam Farooqi, Shaista Andleeb
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 146-186, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750241
Abstract: Anthropogenic activities result in a high quantity of extraction and use of heavy metals. Heavy metals cannot be degraded and hence accumulated in environment, which in turn threatens the soil quality, plants survival and human health. Remediation of heavy metals deserves attention as it is a serious environmental issue but it is impaired the cost of these technologies. Application of biochar for remediation of such processes may provide a new solution. Efficient metal removal from soil matrix involves use of biosurfactants which subsequently help in adsorption and metals remediation by microorganisms immobilized on biochar. This review provides a state of the scientific research on biochar, its production processes, feeds tock condition and application in remediation of metal contaminate sites. As efficiency of this technology is enhanced to 100% removal, according to our present state of knowledge, this would be the first review which addresses the biosurfactants assisted bioremediation by using immobilized microorganism technology. Further research directions are identified to ensure a safe and sustainable use of biochar as a soil amendment for remediation of heavy metals contaminated soils.

Cite this article as: Rabail Zulekha , Riaz Bibi , Zulfiqar Ahmad , Azhar Hussian , Aslam Farooqi, Shaista Andleeb;  Biosurfactants-Biochar Facilitated Bioremediation of Metal Contaminated Sites: A New era of Sustainable Development;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 146-186, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750241

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Mounton Njoya Felix
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 284-332, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750434
Abstract: Since it independence, Cameroon has experience several literacy policy reforms. It is important to notice that those reforms came all from certain difficulties encountered when trying to implement each elaborated policy. Currently, the literacy policy in Cameroon is that of Decentralization which means that the Central Government allows each local government to monitor literacy activities at their respective areas. My aim for this paper is to make the policy makers aware of certain difficulties that could prevent the current policy from having good results, and hope that solutions be thought about in order to strengthen it. For the Methodology, I conducted interviews at the Ministry of basic education in Cameroon, precisely the staff in charge of literacy education in Cameroon, and I also interviewed adults literacy educators. At the end of my survey, two things really retain my attention. The first one is that compare to efficiency of the current policy, challenges are too many. The second point is that literacy activities are not really among the main priorities of the government.By writing this paper, my main hope is that it helps the literacy policy makers in Cameroon to strengthen literacy activities

Cite this article as: Mounton Njoya Felix;  A survey on Efficiency and Challenge of Adult Literacy policy in Cameroon;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 284-332, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750434

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Tatiana Matias
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 343-347, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750443
Abstract: This article intends to review Henry Kissinger’s book: “On China.” With the rising of China as an economic power and the decline of the American position, the United States is no longer alone on the leading of the international system. Since China has stepped in, the two States need to learn how to share the new international era and make efforts to maintain global peace and order. In this respect, diplomacy has and will continue to play an essential role. Described by the eyes of an American diplomat, this book analyses the history of the Sino-American relations, and its consequences for the global balance of power.

Cite this article as: Tatiana Matias;  ON CHINA, by Henry Kissinger, New York: Penguin Press, 2012. 604 pp. Softcover $18, ISBN 9780143121312;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 343-347, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750443

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Loeun Chhany
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 334-342, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750439
Abstract: Vietnam War, also known as Indochina war, is one of the serious historical tragedies for the Vietnamese and the neighboring countries, Laos and Cambodia. Millions of people died and thousands of houses were destroyed. The war took place from the 1950s to 1970s. This war is commonly known as the competition between the Communist bloc led by Soviet Union and the Capitalist bloc led by the United States. Vietnam’s neighboring country, Cambodia, was positioning as neutral, non-allied to any bloc, yet after the coup to overthrow Prince Sihanouk in 1970, Cambodia declared taking side with Capitalist bloc fighting against the North Vietnamese government which sided with the Communists led by the Soviet Union. This paper will figure out the driving causes which drove Cambodia to shift its neutral position to be sided with the United State-led Capitalist bloc pushing the country deeply into the war causing serious tragedy in Cambodia’s history.

Cite this article as: Loeun Chhany;  Driving Factors Pushing Cambodia into Vietnam War (1960s-1970s);  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 334-342, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750439

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Md. Rafikul Islam, Dr. Jianhong Tao
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 202-217, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750245
Abstract: Training is the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies because of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Organizational skills development is the output of training programs. Employees are the main assets of any organization. Every organization needs well-trained employees for performing the activities effectively and efficiently. Training and development is the continuous process of the organizations that helps to develop the skills, knowledge, and capabilities of every employee. The success of organizations depends on employee performance. At the age of globalization, training is crucial for the competent and challenging business. It is the point that needs to help to enhance the quality of work-life of employees and develop the organization. Training and development are the vital factors of enlightening the employee's performance in every organization. The purpose of the study is to find out the impact of training and development on employee performance and productivity. The study found out that employees are aware of training; employees are motivated through practice and training and development results in higher achievement and productivity. The study suggested that the training and development of all staff should be dynamically followed and made obligatory. The employer should give compulsory training programs for all employees to improve performance. The study decided that there is a need for continuous training and development, taking into deliberation the opposition, market dynamics, customer satisfaction, and net promoter score, among others.

Cite this article as: Md. Rafikul Islam, Dr. Jianhong Tao;  The Impact of Training and Development on Employees’ Performance and Productivity;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 202-217, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3750245

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Helen Agbornso Ashu, Xiaobao Peng, Zhang Xuehe, Olayemi Hafeez Rufai , Annabelle Gadubu, Bashiru Ibrahim, Angwi Tassang, Adebayo Olufemi David
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 81-96, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3743921
Abstract: This study investigates social entrepreneurs’ management of stigma and trust violations. In a quantitative analysis, the study analyses self-administered questionnaires of three hundred and four (304) consumers of a fictitious food processing enterprise in Cameroon using structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression analysis to confirm the relationship between apology and justification in trust repair. Findings from the study show that in repairing trust and maintaining relationship, the marketing strategy of an organization takes two forms; tendering apology and justification with integrity, benevolence as moderators. The linear regression analysis shows that benevolence has the strongest effect on trust repair than apology, justification and integrity. The study concludes that apology and justification when combined with benevolence and integrity can be much more effective for the repair of trust in a stigmatized social enterprise.

Cite this article as: Helen Agbornso Ashu, Xiaobao Peng, Zhang Xuehe, Olayemi Hafeez Rufai , Annabelle Gadubu, Bashiru Ibrahim, Angwi Tassang, Adebayo Olufemi David;  The Usage of Apology and Justification to Repair Integrity and BenevolenceBased Trust Violations in a Stigmatized Social Enterprise;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 81-96, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3743921

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Muhammad Zohaib Khan, Dr. Khalid Mahmood Iraqi
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 117-133, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3746402
Abstract: People with disabilities can be an effective human resource for the country regardless of their disabilities. However, due to the negative stereotypes associated with their performance they lack job opportunities. This quantitative study investigates the effects of features of diversity climate, subjective norms of industry, hiring intentions, attitudes and perceived behavioral control on actual hiring behaviors of managers and human resource specialist for people with disabilities in industrial sector of Karachi. A sample of 200 managers and human resource specialist from business/finance, education, retail and sales industry in Karachi has been selected for the study. The data about their hiring behaviors, effects of features of diversity climate, subjective norms of industry, hiring intentions, attitudes and perceived behavioral control was gathered on a questionnaire adapted from Araten-Bergman (2016). The results revealed that subjective norms of the industries, hiring intentions and attitudes towards PWDs significantly influence actual hiring behaviors of the managers and human resource specialist. However perceived behavioral control and features of diversity climate doesn’t have any direct influence on hiring behaviors. The study indicates a strong need for changing negative stereotypes related to people with disabilities.

Cite this article as: Muhammad Zohaib Khan, Dr. Khalid Mahmood Iraqi;  Disability as Diversity: Hiring Behaviors of Human Resource Specialist;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 117-133, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3746402

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
OBETA, M. Uchejeso, UDENZE Chukwudike, EZE M. Ego
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 97-116, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3743927
Abstract: : Every government of Nigeria had introduced one form of modernization package or the other up to the present Buhari regime towards better development in Nigeria. This theoretical review presents such programmes and the impact on the people which makes it successful or failure at every tenure of Nigerian government administration. The review also, provides facts that there are success and failures in some many aspect of such programmes though the Nigerians feels less impact of such modern or developmental programmes or that the programmes may be selective but various international indices presents Nigeria as poverty capital of the world which could confirm that modernization programmes might have imparted on some people but the general outcome is still weak. Nigerian leaders should evaluate past modern packages and present a better approach towards improvement by destroying corruption, restructuring, and solving the Niger Delta crisis and Biafra agitation.

Cite this article as: OBETA, M. Uchejeso, UDENZE Chukwudike, EZE M. Ego;  Nigerian Programmes For Modernization From 1985-2018; Success Or Failure;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 97-116, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3743927

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Zia ur Rahman Zaheer, Wahidullah Alokozay , Hamza Atifnigar , Saifurrahman Rahmani , Ismail Shinwari
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 67-80, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3742463
Abstract: This research aims at designing an ESP course for science and Islamic studies (environment). Besides, the goal of this study is to familiarize the students with the features, requirements, and prospects of the Science and Islamic Studies (Environment), the learners will be able to choose, skim, scan and analyze academic reading materials, paraphrase and organize the ideas from reading materials into mediums of presentation specifically posters and to give oral presentations based on the posters. A total class of the second year of undergraduate students from the University of Malaysia was selected as the respondents. A questionnaire, semi-structured interview and document analysis were used as tools of data collection. The findings of this study revealed that that the students need speaking skills and reading skills the most to complete their oral presentations coursework, and they need to perform group discussions to decide on topics and to discuss the ideas for the presentations. Furthermore, it was indicated that the students need to consult with the lecturers before preparing and presenting their presentations in poster.

Cite this article as: Zia ur Rahman Zaheer, Wahidullah Alokozay , Hamza Atifnigar , Saifurrahman Rahmani , Ismail Shinwari;  Need Analysis In ESP Context: A Project In English For Specific Purpose: Target Situation Analysis For Science And Islamic Studies (Environment);  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 67-80, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3742463

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Fariha Kadir , Aninda Nishat Moitry
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 13-43, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3740094
Abstract: This study attempted to identify the influences of skill-mix and input-mix on patients’ cost and outcome of health care services measured by EuroQol-5D. The data were collected from the District Hospitals (DHs) of Natore and Rajbari; and Upazila Health Complexes (UHCs) of Goalanda and Baliakandi in 2019. The Natore DH and Goalanda UHC are referred to as ‘treatment facility’ since they had better skill-mix and input-mix and the other two are referred to as ‘comparison facility’. A total of 120 patients and/ or attendants (thirty from each facility) from the Department of Medicine and Department of Surgery were interviewed and key informant interviews were conducted with the health managers of the facilities. It was evident that Natore DH had 13% more medical professionals and 10% other support staff than Rajbari DH; Goalanda UHC had 20% more medical professionals and 5% more support staff compared to Baliakandi UHC. On the other hand, considering functional equipment, Natore DH had 25% more than Rajbari DH and Goalanda UHC had 22% more compared to Baliakandi UHC. A significant difference was found between the treatment and comparison facilities for average total cost of the respondents (USD 52.26 vs USD 67.12, p=0.016) as well as for direct medical cost (USD 13.39 vs USD 27.80, p=0.001). The study also found a significant difference in the average score of EuroQol-5D (p=0.000) of the facilities (0.49 vs 0.15). Regression result showed that the availability of skill-mix and input-mix in the hospital resulted in a significant (p=0.000) rise in the score of EuroQol-5D of the patients by 0.27 and a significant (p=0.016) reduction of direct medical cost by USD 12.72. Key informant interviews with health managers also confirmed these quantitative findings. Based on both the qualitative and quantitative findings, the study proposed some recommendations for addressing the problems of skill-mix and input-mix.

Cite this article as: Fariha Kadir , Aninda Nishat Moitry;  Effect of Input-mix and Skill-mix on Cost and Outcome of Health Services: A Study of Selected Hospitals in Bangladesh;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 13-43, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3740094

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Annabelle Gadabu
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
North American Academic Research, 3(4) 44-66, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3732795
Abstract: The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak is of great concern worldwide and particularly in developing countries. Emerging in China in December 2019, COVID-19 has spread rapidly to almost all continents causing numerous fatalities and economic damage. By the end of March 2020, more than 3005 cases were reported from over 40 countries across Africa. However, Malawi is amongst ten countries that had not yet recorded a case. The experiences of other countries served as a warning to the emerging country. This paper presents an assessment of Malawi’s response, risk factors, and preparedness for COVID-19 up to 31st March 2020. An evaluation of news articles, journal papers, progress reports, and other published materials was carried out. Findings show that several key initiatives were taken by the government of Malawi including a declaration of disaster, restrictions on gatherings to no more than 100 people, travel restrictions, and the promotion of sanitation and hygiene practices. However, several gaps need to be addressed for better preparation including human resource re-allocation, improvement of quarantine facilities, provision of protective gear to healthcare workers, and intensification of sensitization campaigns. Like other emerging countries, Malawi has distinctive and challenging resource constraints. Socio-economic, cultural, technical, and political factors all play a role in determining preparedness and require a comprehensive approach.

Cite this article as: Annabelle Gadabu;  Malawi’s Response, Risk Factors, and Preparedness for COVID-19;  North American Academic Research, 3(4) 44-66, 2020, https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3732795

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  Volume: 3 Issue: 4
Farzand Ali, Liang Wei Guo
Vol 3, Issue 4 ;
https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3738773 ; North American Academic Research, 3(4) 01-12
Abstract: With the aim of study how natural fractures affect the extension and morphology of hydraulic fracture in coal and rock mass, the effect features were studied about natural fracture on hydraulic fracture extension and morphology using specimens made of similar materials that containing artificial present fracture as the research objects and indoor simulation equipment’s, injecting fracturing fluids on fixed displacement and based on analyzing the fracturing curves. The study had shown that: the initiation pressure reduced because of the existence of natural fractures in coal and rock mass the hydraulic fracture morphology presented three cases: that were the hydraulic fracture spread along natural fracture surface stopping or continuing to spread after bypassing the natural fracture. This study has some theoretical guidance on the determination of the extraction range and yield prediction of coalbed methane through research.

Cite this article as: Farzand Ali, Liang Wei Guo;  Research Study on the Influence of Natural Cracks on Hydraulic Crack Propagation in Coal and Rock Mass;  https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3738773 ; North American Academic Research, 3(4) 01-12

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