North American Academic Research

The monthly journal from TWASP 
Online ISSN: 1945-9098
Impact Factor : 1.75 (2020)

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April 2019


  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Mintah Bright Darko , Odowa Yusuf Ahmed , Cai Xiu Jun, Wang Yi Fan
Vol 2, Issue 5;
North American Academic Research, 2(5) 41-52, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3836689
Abstract: We identify the expansive scope of soporific contemplations that influence the result of patients experiencing laparoscopic liver resection. Key components for great results after laparoscopic liver resection are cautious patient choice and hazard stratification, fitting checking, methods to decrease blood misfortune and transfusion, and dynamic recuperation the board. Albeit a portion of these key components are the equivalent for open liver task, there are explicit soporific contemplations of which both the careful and anesthesia groups must know to accomplish ideal patient results after laparoscopic liver resection. While novel focal points of laparoscopic liver resection commonly incorporate diminished intraoperative dying, transfusion necessities, and a lower occurrence of postoperative ascites, explicit difficulties incorporate administration of the confounded interchange between low-volume anesthesia and expanded intraabdominal weight due to pneumoperitoneum, with extra contemplations in regards to circulatory help to treat intense blood misfortune with requirement for new change at times. This article will address in detail the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative analgesic contemplations for patients experiencing laparoscopic liver resection that both the careful and anesthesia group ought to know about to improve results.

Cite this article as: Mintah Bright Darko , Odowa Yusuf Ahmed , Cai Xiu Jun, Wang Yi Fan;  Review on Anesthetic for Laparoscopic Liver Resection;  North American Academic Research, 2(5) 41-52, 2020, : https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3836689

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Article: Cover photo
NAAR
Volume 2, Issue 4; April -2019
NAAR
Abstract: NAAR-Cover Photo

Cite this article as: NAAR;  Cover photo;  NAAR

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Jitendra Chakma, Deepak Gautam
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 199-207
Abstract: Community forest management, as it has been contended above, is a methodology with much potential to drastically change the top-down, unified woods the board approach that has been ordinarily utilized and to offer some dimension of independence to networks to take an interest in woodland the executives and increase more straightforward advantages. At its root, network ranger service is about the devolution of capacity to nearby networks to deal with the woodland, and furthermore to think in an unexpected way about how to deal with the asset. Like all network based backwoods the executives approaches, network ranger service, obviously, faces difficulties, for example, control relations, strife and limit building, which can totally undermine achievement if not tended to. Given the participatory network based nature of this methodology, as depicted in the writing, network ranger service can possibly support more extensive based social learning than customary ways to deal with woodland the board, since nearby individuals are legitimately engaged with the executives. Truth be told, it has been contended that fusing social learning in this community multi-partner process is significant, since it is through social discovering that networks can learn and share thoughts, and make aggregate move to manage dangers and vulnerabilities that are a section of woods the board. This turns out to be significantly increasingly significant if the network timberland's understood objective is accomplishing economical timberland the executives, which has truly turned into a regulating objective for most backwoods the executives approaches.

Cite this article as: Jitendra Chakma, Deepak Gautam;  New Era of Community Forest Resources Management;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 199-207

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Amrih Patriotomo
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 193-198
Abstract: “Indo-European languages system (English, Dutch)” and “Austronesian languages system (Indonesian)”have close relationship because modern Indonesian language has a lot of words that are adopted from English and Dutch.

Cite this article as: Amrih Patriotomo;  Comparison Between “Indo-European Languages System (English, Dutch)” and “Austronesian Languages System (Indonesian)”;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 193-198

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Seerat Ul Ain Bhutto, Sanjrani M.A, Nafees Khaskheli, Sadam Chandio
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 185-192
Abstract: Overall pollution of surface waters with microbial pathogens is of generous wellbeing concern. This review will focus on the health effects caused by microbial contamination. Furthermore, it also help us to determine quality and availability of water in Pakistan, various contamination sources as well as preventative measures at domestic and national level. At the end, recommendations are outlined for readers to overcome from the problem of microbial contamination.

Cite this article as: Seerat Ul Ain Bhutto, Sanjrani M.A, Nafees Khaskheli, Sadam Chandio;  Microbial Water Pollution in Pakistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 185-192

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Ahmed Amirul Arefin, Gu-Yeon Wei, Willam Dally, Shanhui Fan, Rezwan Khan, Akhtar Kalam
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 173-184
Abstract: A significant fraction of the solar radiation falling on photovoltaic (PV) panels gets converted into heat thus reducing the efficiency of photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the type of solar cell performance of PV panels falls by 0.5% for every degree rise of temperature.The temperature regulation of PV power systems therefore becomes important especially for areas experiencing consistently high temperatures to improve PV efficiency. The goal of our research work is to emphasize the Phase Change Material (PCM) cooling capability also figure out the feasibility of third generation solar cell.The heat stored into the PCM can bedischarged into the working fluid when the solar radiation is less intensive or unavailable; this can extend its service time to the targeted building.This kind of material is known for its high storing capacity of the temperature which will enhance the cycle lifetime of any device, in this research work we have used capric acid as PCM. Experimental setup consists a direct application on a PV panel was carried out, capric acid is tested in order to study its properties and capacity of absorption. The results shows that around 13% of the energy can be saved.Exergy of PV-PCM is higher than compered PV.To determine the temperature of a photovoltaic panel numerical validation of the modeling is being used and making and economic study for the future scope and feasibility for long run.

Cite this article as: Ahmed Amirul Arefin, Gu-Yeon Wei, Willam Dally, Shanhui Fan, Rezwan Khan, Akhtar Kalam;  Power, Exergy, and Economic Analysis of Photovoltaic (PV) and Photovoltaic-Phase Change Material (PV-PCM) System;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 173-184

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Edgar Edmund Ngao
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 150-172
Abstract: Technological Innovation (TI) is acknowledged as a Value Innovation. Companies that do not utilize TI, often end up with innovation that breaks new ground, but does not unlock potential groups of customers. Its revolution has driven global development over the past two decades in an exceptional way which has paved ways for many new business ventures from various sectors in creating huge market share within the present market. TI has been used with those ventures as a strategy along with other strategies. In ride hailing sectors, Go-Jek Indonesia is one among those new ventures that has successful managed to use TI and hence grow and develop into a very large competitive company in short period of time. This study intended to examine how these strategies have helped in creating competitive advantage as well as addressing transportation challenges. A literature review of Technological Innovation theory and strategies has been a tool in creating a strong theoretical foundation for this study. Where Generic strategies and Intensive Growth strategy has been reviewed in light of Technological Innovation strategies. The study methodology has used a quantitative approach. The quantitative approach is descriptive in nature of the results obtained from primary and secondary data sources. The data results obtained from the primary source were utilized for statistical procedures. This study has conclusively found that to win customer satisfaction, certain important factors such as application functionality and usefulness of the ride hailing service has to be attained. The study went further to understand the underlying strategy that has influenced Go-Jek Indonesia to attain its competitive advantage. This study concluded that a mix of cost leadership and product differentiation strategies (that is focus strategy) together with technology has made a strong impact in increasing their competitive advantage. The study recommends ride hailing services to accept the improvements of communication channels, the need for ongoing training of their contractors and staff, and the need to be aware of the government rules and regulations.

Cite this article as: Edgar Edmund Ngao;  How Ride Hailing services Utilized Technological Innovation as One of Their Strategies in Creating Blue Ocean? Case Study Based on Go-Jek, Bandung, Indonesia;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 150-172

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Ali Siddiqui, Abdul karim keerio
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 138-149
Abstract: English language speaking is considered one of the most difficult and challenging task for language learners. This is a case study, investigating the speaking difficulties of the students at University of Sindh, Jamshoro. Also highlights the factors that affect student’s practical and communicational aspect of English language. Hopefully the study will be fruitful for the L2 learners in Sindh university context and will lead to possible solutions to enhance the speaking performance of students. To analyze and interpret data, simple percentage tables and graphs were used. The study shows that students were facing number of English speaking problem including lack of vocabulary, grammar illiteracy, shyness, connecting ideas, lack of practice, inappropriate environment, pronunciation and accent. Based on the findings of study, it was recommended that there is need of extra classes on communication practice activities. However, teachers should play their active role to encourage students and to overcome shyness. Teachers should expose Students in front of class by providing maximum opportunities in practical activities. Moreover, vocabulary also plays main role, teacher should engage students in vocabulary building exercises.

Cite this article as: Ali Siddiqui, Abdul karim keerio;  The Issues that Cause Problems to Speak English as a Second Language for Undergraduate Students of Sindh, Pakistan;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 138-149

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Abdul Karim Keerio, Dr Shabana Sartaj, Syed Waqar Ali Shah
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 129-137
Abstract: In Pakistan three different types of Educational institutions functions including systems public, private and madrasahs. The hypothesis of this research is to identify key differences in private. Public and madrasah school in context of teaching methodology. The paper will explore the differences between these three school systems mentioned above. It will not include the critical analysis because the research requires only description of teaching methodology. This paper is based on interviews, focused group discussions, survey questionnaire and class room observation conducted with private, public and madrasah teachers/students in Hyderabad to gauge what, in their view, is the teaching methodology. We have selected the schools which were suitable for this research. We attempted to analyze the curriculum of these schools systems and its impact on the students. It also provides some recommendations for these three school systems.

Cite this article as: Abdul Karim Keerio, Dr Shabana Sartaj, Syed Waqar Ali Shah;  The Teaching Trends and Methods in Public Schools, Private and Madrasahs: A comparative Study;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 129-137

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Dr. Moyinul Islam, K M Faridul Hasan, Xing Lu
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 116-128
Abstract: Supercapacitors are one of the promising energy storage devices, which have been widely explored for energy storage applications owing to their unique characteristics like high power density, long cycle life (>100,000 cycles), and environmental friendliness. The electrode materials play a key role as the performance of supercapacitors is primarily depended on the types of the electrode materials. Therefore, it is imperative to explore new electrode materials that simultaneously exhibit a high-capacitance, high cycle life as well as high conductivity.

Cite this article as: Dr. Moyinul Islam, K M Faridul Hasan, Xing Lu;  Hierarchical NiCo2O4@GO@PPy Nanorods are Grown on Carbon Cloth as Supercapacitor Electrodes;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 116-128

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Sarmanbetova Ulbossyn, Rajiv Mandal
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 101-115
Abstract: This paper focuses on symbolism colors in phraseologies in Kazakh culture identity. Symbolism colors and Kazakh phraseologies consist greatly from Kazakh national traditions and culture as well as Kazakh national lifestyle. These six symbolism colors are widely related with Kazakh’s world cognition. This article analyzes color phraseologies by etymological analyze. According to the etymological analyze, colors do not show or mean the colors, it describes the shape, character and Kazakhs’ world cognition.

Cite this article as: Sarmanbetova Ulbossyn, Rajiv Mandal;  Symbolism and Semantics Colors in Kazakh Culture;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 101-115

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Canan GUMUS, Gürkan SARIKAYA, Md Mehedi HASAN
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 85-100
Abstract: With the impact of globalization, today's businesses are affected not only by the country in which they operate, but also by events in other countries around the world. In particular, the corruption or fraudulent transactions of international and large capital firms adversely affect the markets of the whole world. Regulatory agencies have set rules and standards to prevent corruption and fraudulent transactions. One of these rules is the accountability of managers. In order to perform their duties, managers are required to identify, analyze and implement the risks that they may face in relation to operational activities and to combat these risks. These practices are addressed under the name of ‘risk management’. Our objective in this study is to control the risk management activities of milk production companies in Turkey, which have entered ISO 1000 between 2014 and 2016. The data were obtained by using a face-to-face questionnaire. At the same time, Brazil ranked fourth in the list of countries producing the highest milk in the year 2016, as well as the most risk factors for dairy production in Turkey. As a result, the absence of a risk management and Risk porting System in milk enterprises by almost 50% indicates that risk management practices are not sufficient for milk processing.

Cite this article as: Canan GUMUS, Gürkan SARIKAYA, Md Mehedi HASAN;  Case of Risk Management: Dairy Product Companies In Turkey;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 85-100

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Nasra Moussa Nour, Hu Hao
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 76-84
Abstract: Unpredicted Foreign exchange (FX) rate changes produce to a serious risk factor, particularly in public-private partnership (PPP) infrastructure projects in developing countries. The risk exists since PPP extends their offer commonly locally and generate incomes in local currency, while their expenditure costs and managing and maintenance cost designated by significant monetary forms. Multidisciplinary experience and building judgment are expected to control and forecast the exchange rates In this paper, we are going to yearly models the exchange rate between USD/DJF (Djibouti Franc) and contrasts the actual information with forecasting one using time series analysis over the period from 2011 to 2018. The official yearly data of OANDA is used for the present study. Mainly, this paper is to apply the ARIMA model for forecasting the exchange rate between USD/DJF by using the Box-Jenkins approach. The precision of the forecast is compared with Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE).

Cite this article as: Nasra Moussa Nour, Hu Hao;  The Risk of Foreign Exchange Currency in a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) Projects and Djibouti Currency Forecast;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 76-84

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Rashidul Islam, Shoshi Prasad Shil, Md. Akter Hossain, Md. Ariful Islam, Debasish Kumer Paul, Abdullah-Al-Jubayer, Soma Kundu, Md. Sarafat Ali, Dababrata Paul
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 66-75
Abstract: Development of new antibiotic is the prime interest to the researcher now a days as the choice of antibiotic has become limited day by day. Here, we reported the efficacy of methanol extract of Hemigraphis hirta against UTI causing bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Total 10 samples of urine were found positive for UTI. The positive samples were subjected to bacterial identification. Single bacterium as Escherichia coli was found in four samples (isolates as 1a, 3a, 7a and 10a) and Staphylococcus aureus in one (6a). Both the bacteria were found at the same time in three samples (2a and 2b,3a and 3b, 9a and 9b). Ampicillin, Amoxycillin and Cefixime were 100% resistant to all isolates. Total 57.95% isolates showed high level of resistant (Multi drug resistant) against used antibiotics. About 7.95% were found as intermediate resistant and remaining 34.09% were sensitive. All Escherichia coli were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and all Staphylococcus aureus were sensitive to Chloramphenicol. These two antibiotics were used in antibacterial assays of methanol extract of Hemigraphis hirta as positive control for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Zone of inhibition of 100 mg/mL concentration of extract was ranged from 12.5 to 16.0 mm for resistant isolates and 11 to 16.5 mm for sensitive isolates. MIC values for both resistant and sensitive isolates ranged from 9.4 to18.8 mg/mL and the MBC values ranged from 18.8 to 37.5 mg/mL. The study suggests that Hemigraphis hirta plant can be a better option for treating UTI after exploring probable side effects.

Cite this article as: Rashidul Islam, Shoshi Prasad Shil, Md. Akter Hossain, Md. Ariful Islam, Debasish Kumer Paul, Abdullah-Al-Jubayer, Soma Kundu, Md. Sarafat Ali, Dababrata Paul;  Study on Hemigraphis hirta as an Alternative to Antibiotics against Bacteria causing Urinary Tract Infection;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 66-75

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Gulam Quadir, Li Fei, Yan Chaoyang, He Ming, Li Yong
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 60-65
Abstract: This article is committed to consider improvement of lung cancer mortality in the world. Through the previous two decades malignant growth was altogether expanding reason for mortality and real general medical issue in world. Lung disease remains the most continuous reason for passings among other type of harmful neoplasms. Mortality improvement from lung disease and other threatening neoplasms fundamentally separated among Western and previous socialist nations. Throughout the most recent two decades lung malignant growth mortality significantly diminished among guys, while in females it was quickly expanding. Older individuals over age 65 are the most various populaces experiencing lung disease. Everybody realizes that tobacco smoking is significant hazard factor which adds to lung disease, however by and by, individuals keep on smoking. In spite of the measures taken against tobacco, smoking predominance stays high in the different nations of Asia.

Cite this article as: Gulam Quadir, Li Fei, Yan Chaoyang, He Ming, Li Yong;  Tumor Evolution of Lung Cancer and Mortality;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 60-65

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Challagulla Kethanvee, Liu Lin
2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 19-59
Abstract: The aim of study is to evaluate the safety, feasibility, and procedural variables of transradial approach comparing with the transfemoral approach in a standard population of patients undergoing coronary catheterization procedure which is considered as one of the major drawn criticisms of the transradial approach is that it takes longer overall procedure and fluoroscopy time, thereby causing more radiation exposure for both patients and doctors. Method: Data has been collected between January 2016 and December 2018, a total of 1,997 patients in Chins-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, P.R.China, who had went for coronary catheterization and were randomly assigned to both transradial or transfemoral approaches.

Cite this article as: Challagulla Kethanvee, Liu Lin;  Safety, Feasibility and Variable Procedurals between Transradial and Transfemoral Access in Coronary Angiography;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 19-59

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Bibole Lubamba Maguy,Zaixiang Lou, Mazono Mbag Pierrea
Volume 2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 14-18
Abstract: This review surveys the antimicrobial activity of ginger essential oil, against foodborne pathogens. However, these microbes can withstand certain concentrations of ginger essential oil. In herbal medicine, ginger is recommended for a very large number of problems whether it is digestive, energy, vitality or to fight various infections. Ginger oil can cure coughs and kill the bacteria responsible for the infection. The biological activities of ginger essential oil components, disrupts the microbial cytoplasmic membrane. Overall, ginger essential oil, could be used to prolong shelf life and cure foodborne microbes.

Cite this article as: Bibole Lubamba Maguy,Zaixiang Lou, Mazono Mbag Pierrea;  Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger Essential Oil;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 14-18

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  Volume: 2 Issue: 4
Md Mokarram Hossain
Volume 2, Issue 4; April-2019
Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 01-13
Abstract: Graphene and its subsidiaries have some charming properties, which produces enormous interests in different fields, including biomedicine. The biomedical utilizations of graphene-based nanomaterials have pulled in extraordinary interests throughout the most recent decade, and a few gatherings have begun taking a shot at this field the world over. In view of the brilliant biocompatibility, solvency and selectivity, graphene and its subordinates have appeared potential as biosensing and bio-imaging materials. Additionally, because of some novel physico-compound properties of graphene and its subordinates, for example, vast surface zone, high virtue, great bio-functionalizability, simple dissolvability, high medication stacking limit, capacity of simple cell layer infiltration, and so forth., graphene-based nanomaterials become promising possibility for bio-conveyance bearers. Plus, graphene and its subsidiaries have additionally indicated intriguing applications with regards to the fields of cell-culture, cell-development and tissue designing. In this article, an extensive survey on the utilizations of graphene and its subordinates as biomedical materials has been exhibited. The one of a kind properties of graphene and its subsidiaries, (for example, graphene oxide, decreased graphene oxide, graphane, graphone, graphyne, graphdiyne, fluorographene and their doped renditions) have been talked about, trailed by discourses on the ongoing endeavors on the utilizations of graphene and its subordinates in biosensing, bio-imaging, medicate conveyance and treatment, cell culture, tissue building and cell development. Likewise, the difficulties associated with the utilization of graphene and its subordinates as biomedical materials are talked about quickly, trailed by the future viewpoints of the utilization of graphene-based nanomaterials in bio-applications. The audit will give a viewpoint to the uses of graphene and its subordinates, and may open up new skylines to motivate more extensive interests crosswise over different orders.

Cite this article as: Md Mokarram Hossain;  The Fate of Graphene in Biomedical Applications;  Nor. Am. Aca. Res. 2019 : 2(4) : 01-13

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